AJPH September 2015 highlights

Date: Sep 17 2015

AJPH Research: Community racial prejudice, workplace bullying, parent smoking and teens

CONTACT: For copies of articles or full table of contents of an issue, call Mandi Yohn, 202-777-2509 or email her.

American Journal of Public Health highlights:

1. Racial prejudice at the community level is associated with mortality for blacks and whites

2. Workplace bullying could lead to ideas of suicide

3.Parent smoking habits could predict teen lifetime smoking habits

Racial prejudice at the community level is associated with mortality for blacks and whites

Community-level racial prejudice is a risk factor for mortality among blacks and whites, according to new research from the American Journal of Public Health.

The study investigated responses from the General Social Survey between 1993 and 2002, capturing data from a sample of more than 10,000 black and white respondents. The survey assessed racial prejudice by asking questions like, “Do blacks tend to be unintelligent or tend to be intelligent?,” “Do whites tend to be hard working or lazy?” or “Do you think there should be laws against marriages between Negroes/blacks/African-Americans and whites?” Analysis of these results about racial prejudice was compared against mortality data from the National Death Index.

Results from the study showed that community-level racial prejudice increased the risk of mortality for both blacks and whites. The study finds that community level prejudice is a greater risk factor than other known risks including socioeconomic status and residential segregation. Community racial prejudice disrupted social capital – “the extent of one’s social network and also whether norms such as trust are prevalent in a community” – which explained the relationship between community level prejudice and mortality.

“This study is the first, to our knowledge, to document that community-level prejudice increases mortality risk among blacks and whites net of individual-level prejudice and that this relationship is explained, in part, by disruptions in community social capital,” the authors conclude.

[“Effects of racial prejudice on the health of communities: A multilevel survival analysis.” Contact: Yeonjin Lee, MA, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.]

Workplace bullying could lead to ideas of suicide
Workplace bullying is a risk factor for developing later thoughts of suicide, according to new research from the American Journal of Public Health.

Researchers reviewed survey data collected in 2005, 2007, and 2010 from a random cohort sample of Norwegian employees to determine the relationship between workplace bullying and suicidal ideation over time. The respondents were asked whether they have experienced bullying in their workplace through a survey. In addition, respondents completed an item from the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist which assessed experiences with thoughts of suicide.

While thoughts of suicide were prevalent for fewer than 5 percent of the sample, results from the study indicate that bullying victimization is associated with later suicidal ideation.

“The main theoretical contribution of our study is that bullying is established as a risk factor for later suicidal ideation. The odds for suicidal ideation at a later time point were 2.05 times higher among those bullied than among those not bullied,” researchers explain.

“At the primary level, our findings suggest that regulations against bullying should be included in work-related legislation and public health policies. If bullying is allowed to escalate in organizations, it is vital to provide help and support those targeted,” they recommend.

[Workplace bullying and suicidal ideation: A 3-wave longitudinal Norwegian study. Contact: Morten Birkeland Nielsen, PhD, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.]

Parent smoking habits could predict teen lifetime smoking habits
New research from the American Journal of Public Health finds that parental nicotine dependence could predict adolescent smoking and dependence on nicotine.

Researchers used data between 2004 and 2012 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which captured interview responses annually from more than 67,000 people over the age of 12. The study itself focused on data from 35,000 parent-adolescent pairs and reviewed their responses regarding nicotine dependence and the smoking status of the parents. Additional responses were collected including perceptions of smoking, incidence of depression, adolescent use of drugs or alcohol and adolescent perceptions about their parents’ parenting and any instances of conflict.

Results from the study indicate that parental nicotine dependence is associated with adolescent lifetime smoking and dependence, with mothers having a greater effect on their children than fathers. A number of other parent-adolescent factors also increased risk of adolescent lifetime smoking and nicotine dependence including,  parent education, marital status, quality of parenting, and adolescent beliefs and perceptions about smoking, other substance use and mental health.

“Providing smoking cessation assistance to parents in a pediatric care setting could be a promising strategy, because it would occur early in a child’s life, with the expected outcomes of reduced smoking onset and increased cessation among youths who started to smoke,” the study suggests.

[“Intergenerational patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence among US adolescents.” Contact: Denise Kandel, PhD, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York.]

Find a full list of research papers to be published online on Sept. 17, 2015, at 4 p.m. EDT below:

  • Higher prices of sugar-sweetened beverages following an excise tax in Berkeley: Early evidence. 
  • News Media Framing of New York City's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Portion Size Cap 
  • A Qualitative Inquiry about Pruno, an Illicit Alcoholic Beverage Linked to Botulism Outbreaks in United States Prisons 
  • The Rikers Island Hot Spotters: Defining the Needs of the Most Frequently Incarcerated 
  • Contraception in Jail: What do women want? A qualitative study
  • Incarceration and current tobacco smoking in African American and Afro-Caribbean Blacks in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) 
  • Early Social-Emotional Functioning and Public Health: The Relationship Between Kindergarten Social Competence and Future Wellness *
  • Intergenerational social networks and health behaviors among children living in public housing 
  • How to identify success among networks that promote active living 
  • Maternal allostatic load, care-taking behaviors, and child dental caries experience: A cross-sectional evaluation of linked mother-child data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
  • Access to dental services for people using a wheelchair 
  • Preventing major depressive disorder: how behavioural economics can help 
  • Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Canadian Emerging Adults 
  • A Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Trial for Preventing Type 2 Diabetes 
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Anxiety Symptoms among Women in New Delhi, India 
  • Racial and ethnic disparities in cumulative environmental health impacts in California: evidence from a state-wide environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1) 
  • Does Racial Prejudice Harm the Health of Communities? A Multilevel Survival Analysis
  • Lower adherence to mammography screening guidelines among transgender patients and sexual minority women 
  • Differences in Expectations about Future Long-Term Care Needs among Adults Ages 40-65 by Sexual Orientation
  • Spousal violence in five transitional countries: A population-based multi-level analysis of individual and contextual factors. 
  • Workplace bullying and suicidal ideation: A three wave longitudinal study 
  • Community Health Worker Home Visits for Medicaid-Enrolled Children with Asthma: Effects on Asthma Outcomes and Costs *
  • Global prevalence and trends in unintentional drug overdose: A systematic review of the literature 
  • Availability of Women-Centered Drug Treatment Services in the U.S. 
  • HIV Testing and HIV Service Delivery to Populations at High Risk Attending STD Clinics in the United States, 2011-2013 
  • The Perceived Consequences of Heavy Metal Mining in Post-War El Salvador: A Qualitative Study 
  • Initiation of HPV Vaccination among Predominantly Minority Female and Male Adolescents at Inner-City Community Health Centers *
  • Evaluating the Use of an Electronic Death Registration System for Mortality Surveillance During and After Hurricane Sandy, New York City, 2012 
  • Intergenerational Patterns of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in Adolescence 

Note: Studies not under embargoed and already published are denoted by an asterisk.

The articles above will be published online Sept. 17, 2015, at 4 p.m. EDT by the American Journal of Public Health under “First Look.” “First Look” articles have undergone peer review, copyediting and approval by authors but have not yet been printed to paper or posted online by issue. The American Journal of Public Health is published by the American Public Health Association, www.apha.org, and is available at www.ajph.org.

Complimentary online access to the Journal is available to credentialed members of the media. Address inquiries to Mandi Yohn at APHA, 202-777-2509, or email her. A single print issue of the Journal is available for $35 from the Journal’s Subscriptions department. If you are not a member of the press, a member of APHA or a subscriber, online single issue access is $30 and online single article access is $22 at www.ajph.org or for direct customer service, call 202-777-2516, or email.

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The American Journal of Public Health is the monthly journal of the American Public Health Association. APHA champions the health of all people and all communities by strengthening the profession of public health, sharing the latest research and information, promoting best practices and advocating for public health issues and policies grounded in research. More information is available at www.apha.org.