Public Health Education and Health Promotion
Alminda D'Agostino, Co-Editor
Judy Bolstad, Co-Editor
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Health Education and Health Promotion Tools
New Programs Available to Promote Eye Health in Communities
Neyal J. Ammary-Risch, MPH, CHES
Director, National Eye Health Education Program
National Eye Institute
National Institutes of Health
The National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) of the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, is pleased to announce new resources for health educators to promote eye health in their community — the Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit and See Well for a Lifetime Program: An Educational Series on Vision and Aging.
The Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit is specifically for health educators who work with people with diabetes. Available in English and Spanish, this toolkit provides evidence-based, culturally appropriate information that can be used to educate people about diabetes and eye complications in small group settings. The core of the toolkit are a flipchart and module containing detailed information about diabetic eye disease and the importance of comprehensive dilated eye exams at least once a year. To learn more, visit http://www.nei.nih.gov/DiabetesToolkit.
The See Well for a Lifetime program contains three educational modules that health educators working in senior centers, clinics or other community settings that serve older adults can use to promote eye health in people over age 50. Each module, Making Vision a Health Priority, Age-related Eye Diseases and Conditions, and Low Vision, contains a PowerPoint presentation, a speaker’s guide, participant handouts, promotional announcements and evaluation forms. This program helps fill a gap in the educational needs of older adults about health and preserving sight as they age. No prior knowledge of eye health is required to deliver the presentations. To view the See Well for a Lifetime modules, visit www.nei.nih.gov/SeeWellToolkit.
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TRAIN: The Solution to Your Organization’s Training Needs
Lois D. Banks, DMin
Public Health Foundation
The Public Health Foundation is dedicated to ensuring public health preparedness through training, quality improvement, and technical assistance. TRAIN (https://www.train.org), a Web-based learning management network, was developed in 2003 in response to state requests for training that would efficiently prepare the public health work force. Made possible through collaborative partnerships among public health organizations, departments and funders, this evolving variety of formats across the training spectrum.
TRAIN provides a venue for public health professionals to manage their trainings from classroom-based courses, workshops, exercises, Web-based interactive trainings, as well as 25 additional domains of delivering training. Course providers join a network of more than 3,600 providers of training who currently use TRAIN as a platform on which to ensure access to high-quality education and training and share, collaborate and develop solutions that fill gaps in training.
TRAIN supports the training needs of health departments, states and national organizations to promote competency-based training for the public health and first responder workforces responsible for emergency preparedness.
We invite your state or organization to take a bird’s eye view of the premier learning management system for public health, TRAIN. If you’d like to become a part of the TRAIN network, please contact TRAIN Director Lois Banks at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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CAST Administrator Tutorial
Lisa N. Kelly
Communities increasingly need and want proven prevention programs designed to promote success in their at-risk teens. A new online tutorial in CAST (Coping And Support Training) is now available to support administrators of schools and agencies desiring to offer such a program to their youth.
What is CAST?
An evidence-based program designed for use with at-risk teens in a peer group setting — because behaviors are developed and maintained within a social context.
Six to eight youth ages 14 – 18.
A leader trained in CAST who excels in working with at-risk youth.
Decreased Drug Use
Improved School Smarts
Twelve, 55-minute sessions held twice per week for six weeks.Skill Areas?
In NIH-funded studies, relative to controls, CAST youth evidenced significant and sustained:
Reductions in suicidal behaviors (65 percent) and emotional distress — anxiety (34 percent for females; 27 percent for males), depression (44 percent), and hopelessness (29 percent)
Declines in anger control problems (24 percent for females; 20 percent for males)
Reduction in hard drug use (62 percent)
Reductions in alcohol use (16 percent) and drug use control problems (33 percent)
Enhanced problem-solving coping (24 percent), personal control (24 percent), and family support (27 percent)
The CAST curriculum aligns with National Health Education Standards, which delineate personal, family, and community health knowledge expectations for students by grade. CAST is listed on SAMHSA’s registry of evidence-based programs at http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=51. For more information, contact email@example.com and visit www.reconnectingyouth.com.
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Maximizing Messages-Motivating Moms
Judy F. Wilson, MSPH, RD
Senior Nutrition Advisor
Office of Research and Analysis
Food and Nutrition Service, USDA
The USDA Food and Nutrition Service in collaboration with stakeholders developed a set of 16 emotion-based nutrition messages and related content designed specifically for low-income mothers and children. The collaborative development process together with extensive consumers testing (in eight states) resulted in messages that are clear, realistic and compelling. These resources also include supporting content that provides motivational and easy-to-use tips for putting the messages into practice. There are seven messages for mothers of preschool-age children and five for mothers of elementary school-age children. Messages for mothers address: maternal modeling of fruit and vegetable consumption; making fruits, vegetables and low-fat milk available and accessible in the home; cooking and eating together; introducing new foods; and letting children self-serve at meals. Five messages for 8- to 10-year-old children reinforce the messages for mothers and endeavor to influence food preferences, beliefs and asking behaviors of kids. The implementation booklet provides guidance on how to use the messages in theory-based interventions, information on cultural relevance, selecting communication channels and applications for federal nutrition assistance programs. Programs and groups working with low-income target audiences will find these useful resources at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/fns/corenutritionmessages/default.htm. USDA is currently expanding the messages and supporting content to include new messages addressing whole grain foods, fat free and 1% fat milk, and testing photos to support the messages. The new resources will be available later this year. For more information, contact Judy.Wilson@fns.usda.gov.
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Tracking Trends in Health Communication: The Health Information National Trends Survey
Lila J. Finney Rutten, PhD, MPH; Richard P. Moser, PhD; Bradford W. Hesse, PhD, SAIC, Inc., National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, Md., National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md.
The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was created by the U.S. National Cancer Institute to monitor changes in the rapidly evolving field of health communication. HINTS assesses the populations’ access to, need for, and use of cancer information. The first HINTS survey was fielded in 2002 and 2003, surveying 6,369 Americans. Subsequent surveys followed in 2005 (n=5,586) and 2008 (n=7,674). HINTS data have been used to understand how adults use different communication channels to obtain health information, and to inform the creation of evidence-based health communication strategies and cancer prevention and control efforts. HINTS materials and resources are available on the HINTS website (http://hints.cancer.gov), including an electronic codebook, survey data, survey instruments, and publications. Plans are under way to perform the next data collection in 2011. An online tool, HINTS-GEM (Grid-Enabled Measures), has been developed to enable a larger community of researchers to propose new content areas or survey items for inclusion in future HINTS data collections and to evaluate and comment on survey items included in prior versions of HINTS. HINTS-GEM, available through the HINTS website, provides a collaborative forum for drawing upon the collective expertise of the behavioral, social science, and cancer control community to develop and refine a set of survey items for inclusion in HINTS. Public Health Education and Health Promotion Section members are encouraged to engage with HINTS-GEM to help develop content for the next HINTS instrument to ensure the National Cancer Institute collects data with greater relevance to the scientists and practitioners who use HINTS.
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Engaging Pharmacists/Pharmacies to Prepare Communities
Patricia A. O’Hare, DrPH, MS, RN and Jeanine L. Gould-Kostka
Montgomery County, Maryland DHHS, Public Health Services
Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Program
Pharmacists and pharmacies play a vital role in public health and emergency preparedness. As stated in the ASTHO Operational Framework for Partnering with Pharmacies for Administration of 2009 H1N1 Vaccine, pharmacists meet the public on a daily basis in more than 56,000 community retail pharmacy outlets including drug stores, mass merchants, supermarkets, and independent drug stores in the United States and are able to get information out to the public quickly. For federal, state and local governments, pharmacists/pharmacies are valuable community partners for ensuring a more resilient community during emergencies.
The Montgomery County, Maryland Advanced Practice Center (www.montgomerycountymd.gov/apc) identified a national need to share lessons learned and to collaborate with other local health departments on this very issue. Through collaboration with Montgomery County’s public health/pharmacy group and local health departments, such as Palm Beach County in Florida, an interactive virtual online toolkit was created (www.rx4prep.org). The goal of this toolkit is to create an online environment for pharmacists/pharmacies and local health departments (LHDs) to connect around the issue of public health emergency preparedness.
The toolkit includes case studies of successful efforts by local health departments and pharmacists to provide flu vaccines to the public, educate consumers on how to prepare and plan for emergencies, and serve as distribution points for emergency drugs during an event. It showcases free tools for pharmacists and local health departments to download and use. In the future it will serve as a place to connect with local health department staff and pharmacists throughout the country. Pharmacists, a trusted professional resource, and local health departments collaborating can develop win-win situations for communities.
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Eighth Annual APHA Film Festival at the 139th APHA Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C.
The PHEHP’s Health Communication Working Group (HCWG) is seeking submissions for the eighth annual APHA Film Festival at the 139th APHA Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C., Oct. 29 to Nov. 2, 2011.
The Annual APHA Film Festival is an opportunity to showcase the application of visual media in public health practice. Deadline for submissions is April 1, 2011.
Eligible productions should:
Be recent (no more than three years old).
Address a public health issue.
Show evidence of collaboration between the producing agency and the intended audience.
Be created for a U.S. audience (not limited to English language productions).
"We’re looking for examples of best practices in health communication as evidenced by collaboration between producing agencies and their intended audiences," said Gary Black, one of the festival organizers and health communication specialist in Charlotte, N.C. "Our goal is to get effective tools into the hands of people who are working hard to address our nation’s health problems."
Launched in 2004, the Annual APHA Film Festival is organized by HCWG and International Health. Last year, it featured more than 40 videos and attracted more than 500 attendees. It is the nation’s first and only film festival dedicated to public health.
For more information including how to submit an entry, please click here.
To join HCWG and sign up for the monthly eNewsletter go to: http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/HCWG-APHA/.
Follow HCWG on Twitter at: www.twitter.com/APHA_healthcomm.
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TWENTY-FIRST Annual APHA Public Health Materials Contest
The APHA Public Health Education and Health Promotion Section is soliciting your best health education, promotion and communication materials for the 21st annual competition. The contest provides a forum to showcase public health materials during the APHA Annual Meeting and recognizes professionals for their hard work.
All winners will be selected by panels of expert judges prior to the 139 APHA annual meeting in Washington, D.C. A session will be held at the annual meeting to recognize winners, during which one representative from the top materials selected in each category will give a presentation about the winning material.
Entries will be accepted in three categories; printed materials, electronic materials, and other materials. Entries for the contest are due by March 25, 2011. Please contact Stephanie Parsons at firstname.lastname@example.org for additional contest entry information.
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Registration Now Open for APHA Midyear Meeting — "Implementing Health Reform: A Public Health Approach"
Registration is now open for APHA’s Midyear Meeting: Implementing Health Reform — A Public Health Approach. Join public health colleagues and partners in Chicago, June 23-25, to better understand the health reform law and its implications from a public health perspective. Gain the tools needed for implementing the provisions of the Affordable Care Act and for improving health outcomes in communities across the country. The early-bird registration deadline is April 15. To register or for more information, visit http://www.apha.org/midyear.
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Voices from the Field
Integration of simulation in medical education; shifting the paradigm
Emily A. Lilo, MPH
Educational Research Manager
Stanford University Medical Center
Following in the footsteps of aviation, the medical industry has just begun to truly maximize the use of simulation to improve quality of care and patient safety. Stanford University’s School of Medicine strongly emphasizes the integration of immersive and simulation based learning for everything from basic skills acquisition to crisis management. The SSTRIVE lab within the Division of Vascular Surgery is running several research and training programs to build simulation based curricula at all levels of vascular surgery training, from pre-clinical med students through surgery residency, using both endovascular and open vascular simulation tools, and the initial results have been promising. Results indicate that exposing pre-clinical medical students to a simulation driven course on vascular disease and treatment helps to improve technical skills, increase interest in surgical specialties, and engage students in managing disease from textbook to treatment. In addition, with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, we are in the process of measuring the impact of third year surgical residents having access to mentored simulation time through a randomized controlled trial. The study examines the impact on learner satisfaction, technical skills training, and patient outcomes, and has thus far shown a difference in all areas. For the safety of patients and the benefit of trainees, and based on our research, we confidently believe that there is the potential to change the learning paradigm incorporating simulation as a training tool, early and often.
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Public Health: New Frontiers
Gail Shor-Posner, PhD, Director, Graduate Programs,
Julie Kornfeld, PhD, Director, MPH, MSPH, MPH/MD Programs,
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
The Miami Miller School of Medicine has received a $2.2 million, five-year grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration to support innovative components of a newly created four year MD/MPH dual program. The new educational track responds directly to a severe shortage of physicians trained in public health and health care delivery and provides an integrated educational experience merging the basic generalist physician competencies with those of a public health professional. The unique training in both clinical medicine and public health will promote necessary skills to enhance understanding of health promotion and disease prevention in individuals and in population groups.
The accredited Public Health Physician program, which opens in June 2011, will start earlier in the year than the traditional medical curriculum, and will integrate small-group instruction with a series of required and innovative courses and experiences in public health throughout all four years. Medical students will obtain necessary skills and a broad knowledge base of practices used in public health to approach health problems from a population and prevention perspective. The first two years of the program will be taught on the Miami campus of the Miller School, integrating public health coursework and research experiences with the medical education experience. Years three and four will take place predominantly in Palm Beach County at the clinical teaching sites currently affiliated with the University of Miami’s regional medical campus, and sites of clinical and public health education, including the Palm Beach County Health Department and the Florida Public Health Institute.
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Understanding Lichen Sclerosis
Hiba Wehbe-Alamah, PhD, RN, FNP-BC, CTN-A; University of Michigan-Flint
Barbara L. Kornblau, JD, OTR/L; University of Michigan-Flint
Lichen Sclerosis (LS) is a little known skin disorder that can affect men, women, infants and children, but is most common in women. It primarily occurs in the anogenital area but may also be found on other parts of the body, especially the breasts and upper arms. At the 138th APHA Annual Meeting, we presented the findings of a qualitative study on LS. Out of 200 attendees, only one person was familiar with this condition. Lack of knowledge about LS on the part of the public and health care providers is ubiquitous. Virtual content analysis was conducted of 527 entries from three public online forums and revealed the following themes: 1) Women with LS experience frequent misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis due to overall lack of knowledge; 2) Women with LS rely on finding online communities to provide support, increase knowledge, answer questions and share resources; 3) Women with LS experience significant frustrations and social justice issues; 4) Women with LS report a profound impact on their quality of life in the areas of participation and psychosocial functioning; and 5) Women with LS often seek a variety of alternative treatment in their quest for relief and increased participation.
Health educators at the local, national and international levels can play a significant role in: 1) increasing LS awareness among health care consumers and providers; 2) facilitating early detection and treatment; 3) preventing misdiagnosis and the resulting prolonged suffering and anatomical changes; and 4) improving quality of life for LS sufferers and their significant others.
Wehbe-Alamah, H. & Kornblau, B. (2010). The lived Experiences of Women with Lichen Sclerosis. Oral paper presented at the 138th APHA Annual Meeting, Denver.
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Kern County Works Toward Cultural Competence in Pilot Project
In 2009, the Kern County Public Health Services Department was invited by the California Department of Public Health to participate in a five-county pilot project, California Collaborative for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCCDP), aimed at reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease by improving linkages with community based resources. The project targets the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease of high blood pressure, diabetes, tobacco, physical inactivity and obesity. An objective of the project is to raise awareness and increase participation in the Stanford-developed Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, also known as Healthier Living Workshops. By attending a workshop, people with chronic conditions (high blood pressure, diabetes or arthritis) learn tips and tools to take control of chronic conditions and live their best life.
The framework for the CCCDP project uses multiple approaches, and Kern County’s Call to Action to reverse the obesity epidemic aligns with CCCDP goals. Obesity is a risk factor for arthritis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Because Kern County demographics are different from the other CCCDP counties (Mendocino, Nevada, Sacramento and Shasta), Kern County is implementing Healthier Living workshops in English and Spanish. Kern County recruited both English and Spanish speaking leaders for the workshops and translated CCCDP materials into Spanish.
Public Health staff translated scripts for radio, newspapers, fliers and other promotional items. In doing so, Kern County provided an invaluable resource and was recognized with the "2010 Exceptional Service Award." Kern County will continue to make Healthier Living workshops available in English and Spanish through June 2012.
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Mobilizing Communities in the Event of Food-Borne Illnesses
Taniya Henry, BDS, MPH, MBA
Online Adjunct Faculty, Benedictine University
Masters in Public Health Program
Since Nov. 1, 2010, the multi-state salmonella outbreak linked to consumption of alfalfa sprouts has affected individuals with a strain of salmonella (Serotype I 4,5,12,i-), and has therefore been a hot topic reported via different mass media communication channels. These media efforts were all geared toward making the public aware of the situation or health risk, as well as informing them of the investigations being performed. As with any kind of public health risk, communities first tend to be fearful and concerned, which was no different in this case. However, state and local public health departments as well as the CDC provided excellent tips on how such outbreaks can be controlled and prevented, and also released information on the risk factors associated with the spread of salmonella.
Under such health risk events, it is pertinent that the channels used for communication are highly effective to arouse awareness among individuals and bring about the necessary changes. Communities need to be motivated to seek information, spread the word in their social circles and reinforce the change process.
The main purpose of public health education is for the work force to understand the severity of the health risk for planning and delegating the proper steps so that each community member is empowered to make informed decisions regarding their health. It is therefore the responsibility of all health care advocates to be cognizant of such sensitive information and become immediately involved when a health risk of such nature is detected.
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Improving Child Nutrition at the Nation’s Schools is Officially On
Ruthy Watson, PhD, MSPH
The USDA officially announced details of its new guidelines, which are designed to improve the health of school children in the United States. School lunches that have traditionally included high fat, high processed foods, and large amounts of sodium and sugar, will be changing. The new guidelines call for more whole grains, natural fruits, vegetables and no trans fats in school meals. Beverages will now consist of low-fat milk and unsweetened, unflavored milk.
This is good news at a time when the number of obese and overweight children is increasing in America. The health issues that accompany obesity and overweight conditions such as diabetes and hypertension are also a major concern. This is partly because of the likelihood of obese and overweight children carrying these conditions into adolescence and adulthood. Military officials in the United States are worried that the present trend of youth who are unfit for military service will continue if something is not done to address the situation.
Current estimates reveal that approximately 9 million youth are not fit for military service because they are either obese or overweight.
The new nutritional guidelines are a step in the right direction. As part of First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move initiative, children now will be receiving nutritious food at school. Research shows that when children eat healthy, they are able to focus better and have more energy to get through the school day.
Source: Bill Hendrik, New Rules Call for Healthier School Lunches, Web MD Health News. http://children.webmd.com/news/20110112/new-rules-call-for-healthier-school-lunches
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Dental Therapists – A Solution That Works
Terry Batliner, DDS, MBA
Center for Native Oral Health Research
Colorado School of Public Health
There are millions of people in this country who do not have adequate access to dental care. Most of these people live in rural or inner city areas. Two examples illustrate the problem. If one looks at the distribution of dentists in Detroit and the surrounding suburbs, it resembles a culture dish with an antibiotic disk placed in it. Dentists are thick in the suburbs and very sparse in the inner city. Similarly, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota is home to 30,000 Oglala Lakota people. The reservation is about the size of Connecticut but has only three dental clinics with 10 dentists. This is one of the poorest places in the country, and the severity of dental disease is overwhelming. Young dentists come and go, and vacancies are common. There are very few dentists that stay for more than a couple of years.
A solution is being proposed by a consortium of foundations and health care experts -- Dental Health Aid Therapists (DHAT) -- that could help these problems. The DHATs are trained for two years after high school. They receive over 3,000 hours of hands-on clinical training and then work under the general supervision of a dentist. The DHATs provide basic dental care such as fillings, simple extractions, emergency and preventive care. DHATS have practiced in Alaska for several years, and a recent review by RTI and Associates found they provided high quality basic dental care. This is a program that should be expanded.
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Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Launches INSP Virtual 2.0
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública/National Institute of Public Health
The National Institute of Public Health (INSP, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública) recently launched INSP Virtual 2.0 (www.inspvirtual.mx), a virtual space that enriches learning by providing INSP personnel, students, professors and partners with the most relevant information about the Institute’s academic programs and administrative processes. The purpose of the website is to centralize information about the INSP’s academic programs, including classroom-based, online and multimodal programs, and provide the INSP community with the information they need to develop successful careers in public health.bThrough this website, the office of academic affairs has been able to automate its academic management services and processes and create a more interactive relationship with the student body and faculty. INSP Virtual 2.0 seeks to promote the collaborative, collective and open construction of knowledge and has multiple interactive sections. For example, the documentation center allows students, professors and researchers to consult the INSP’s physical and electronic collection and access on line resources for teaching and learning, such as learning objects and open courses published under Creative Commons Licenses. In the Student Life section, INSP students can find information about housing and events and resolve academic concerns with administrative personnel and professors. There are also interactive spaces for faculty development and alumni participation. Furthermore, INSP Virtual 2.0 allows the INSP community to access academic networks, such as tropEd and the Virtual Campus of the Pan American Health Organization, and social networks, such as Facebook, to develop their academic and professional careers in the field of public health.
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Health Risk Appraisals
Vicki Simpson RN, MSN, CHES, PhD (c)
Undergraduate Program Director
Clinical Assistant Professor
Purdue University School of Nursing
The recently passed health care reform bill reinforces the health care role of employers in the United States as providers of health insurance and wellness programming. Various aspects of the bill provide support for greater involvement of both large and small employers in wellness programming. Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) technology is currently utilized by many employers as a major aspect of such programming. While HRAs are intended to be both a measurement and intervention tool, the educational aspect of HRAs has not been consistently supported and utilized. These tools generate valuable information about multiple health and lifestyle risks, which are often precursors to the development of chronic disease. The value as an educational tool lies in the personalized feedback generated and includes risk information, education concerning ways to reduce risks and the impact of such reductions. Recent literature has discussed the need to address the multiple risks that individuals in the United States currently face; HRAs provide a means to do so. An opportunity exists for public health educators to become more involved in researching how individuals interpret and utilize HRA information. This involvement may include aiding individuals in interpreting the personalized information, discerning the best approach to behavior change, and maximizing support for individuals as they attempt to make healthy lifestyle changes. This will require greater collaboration with U.S. employers both large and small, which will provide access to not only a large percentage of the adult working population but to their families as well.
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The Affordable Care Act and the Social Web
Virginia M. Brennan
Editor of the Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Even if a simple lesson in insurance weren’t enough to justify the individual mandate as a provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, economic projections are. As Rajkumar and Pollack put it in a Jan. 7, 2011 LA Times op-ed piece, the mandate embodies "a web of mutual obligations," the sort of web that makes possible any effective use of collective action. In this case, the payoff is that everyone individually has a good chance at staying healthy, and the nation as a whole is less burdened by the crushing problems attendant upon the medically underserved being in much poorer health than others.
In their commentary in the February 2011 issue of JHCPU, John Zweifler and colleagues argue for integration of primary care at community health centers with specialty care at safety-net hospitals. They note that provisions in the Affordable Care Act now make such a leap forward possible. It would, for the first time, make a workable, comprehensive system of care available for the medically underserved in the United States (people with very low incomes and many members of racial and ethnic minority groups).
Although health disparities have long plagued the United States, the health care system has the raw material to overcome them. Community health centers and safety-net hospitals have already demonstrated their capacity to provide high-quality care for the medically underserved. By building up and integrating CHCs and safety-net hospitals, the Afforable Care Act will finally overcome health disparities and allow the health care system as a whole to thrive.
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Six-Phase Research Model
Maria E. Rosa, DrPH, PhD, Vice President
National Council of La Raza
Institute for Hispanic Health
The National Council of La Raza’s (NCLR) Institute for Hispanic Health (IHH) is dedicated to reducing the incidence, burden, and impact of health problems among Hispanic Americans. IHH works in partnership with NCLR Affiliates, government partners, private funders and other Hispanic-serving organizations to deliver high-quality health interventions that are culturally competent, linguistically appropriate and rooted in the communities served. Although each project varies in topic, scope and availability of funds, they generally follow a six-phase model:
What follows is a brief summary of project development based on this model. A concept is proposed to a potential funder, agreements are reached with the funder and partnering organizations, and project activities and a timeline are determined. To form the research base for materials development, a literature review, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and qualitative data analyses are conducted. Educational materials are then developed in both Spanish and English and prepared for publication by an external consultant specializing in health literacy, as well as by NCLR’s in-house team of editors, graphic designers and media specialists. To test the materials, NCLR trains promotores de salud (lay health educators) at each partnering site to use the materials in conducting charlas (educational sessions) with community members. Data and feedback from these sessions are analyzed by an independent evaluator, and findings are disseminated through a variety of mechanisms. The findings serve to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of the materials and contribute to advocacy efforts at the local and national levels.
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Community Based Medical Education at KUSMS
Dr. Naimeswar P Sinha
Professor Community Medicine, KUSMS, Dhulikhel, Nepal
Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUSMS) is a non-profit, non-governmental constituent university medical college. A substantial portion of hours has been allotted for students to learn and practice public health activities.
KUSMS education strategy
KUSMS is the first medical college in Nepal to include Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Community Based Learning (CBL) as an integrated part of the curriculum. PBL comprises small group sessions under the guidance of faculty, followed by self-directed, independent learning, laboratories and selected lectures. CBL comprises teaching/learning in classroom and in the local community.
Approaches of community medicine
During 4.5 years of medical college duration, students learn different aspects of community medicine such as phenomenon and social aspects of health, disease and care through Community Diagnosis Program and Observational Studies. Students go through many different intervention projects to reduce the health and disease burden in the community. Projects are focused on health and disease awareness, maternal and child health, hygiene and sanitation, environmental protection, health care utilization behavior in the community, school health and occupational health.
During the internship year, students conduct comprehensive health care activities, and address health problems at the individual, family and community levels. In the community, interns promote health education, and do counseling on different diseases and family planning. Interns work closely with the health center paramedical staff and doctors. Interns participate in the administrative activities of the health center such as record-keeping, dispensing and communication with the hospital.
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Health Education and Health Promotion News
Public Health Preparedness & Response Core Competency Model
Audrey R. Gotsch, DrPH, CHES
Past PHEHP Section Chair
Past President APHA
The Public Health Preparedness & Response Core Competency Model was released in December 2010. Available here, it includes four domains (Model Leadership; Communicate and Manage Information; Plan for and Improve Practice; and Protect Worker Health and Safety) and 18 competencies. Supported by local/state health departments and other public health organizations, it aligns with the PHEHP Section’s mission.
The development process was managed by the Association of Schools of Public Health and funded by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response. It fulfills the 2006 Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandate to develop "a competency-based training program to train public health practitioners." The competency model provides a national standard of behaviorally based, observable skills for the work force to prepare for and respond to all-hazards scenarios. In keeping with the National Health Security Strategy, National Response Framework and Target Capabilities List, all-hazards include terrorist attacks, natural disasters, emerging infectious disease, health emergencies, environmental threats and/or other major events such as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, high-yield explosives, and food and agriculture events.
Led by a Leadership Group, co-chaired by Dr. C. William Keck, past APHA president, and myself, the national team included over 400 individuals from federal, tribal, state and local public health practice and academic settings who participated in three rounds of electronic stakeholder input and expert workgroups. The CDC-funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLC) are currently using the model that is under review for use by other organizations.
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EAT WELL TO BE WELL: Social Marketing Through a Public Health Lens
Minnesota Institute of Public Health
Minnesota’s Twin Cities Hunger Initiative (TCHI) realized that of the 78,000 seniors aged 60 and older in Minneapolis–St. Paul, barely 20 percent of eligible residents had accessed the Minnesota Food Support Program (FSP), the card swipe version of food stamps. To communicate the importance of good nutrition as a key to healthy aging, TCHI hired the Minnesota Institute of Public Health (MIPH), a non-profit organization with expertise in social marketing. MIPH was charged with developing, implementing and evaluating a campaign that targeted seniors about the Food Support Program, to access the Food Support Program by calling the Minnesota Food Help Line.
MIPH conducted market research to gauge seniors’ views of the program and to test numerous messages. The clear winner was Eat Well to Be Well. Posters, print ads and a host of dissemination venues helped get the message out in four languages. Seniors’ calls to the Food Help Line in January 2010 were 22 per month, or 9 percent of all callers. By June 2010, there were over 100 calls per month to the Food Help Line by seniors, 34 percent of all callers.
The public health approach included evidence-driven and community-based messages. Outreach to health professionals included a feature article on the campaign in the local Metro Doctors magazine and involvement of health plans. The average monthly benefit to an eligible participating Minnesota senior has been $111.
The FDA’s newsletter, At the Table, recently featured Eat Well to Be Well. Efforts to sustain the campaign are being pursued.
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The University of Tennessee Department of Public Health
Margaret Knight, PhD, MS, MPH
University of Tennessee, Department of Public Health
Accredited in 1969 and having awarded the first MPH in Community Health Education in 1971, the University of Tennessee has the oldest accredited master’s degree in public health in the United States and was the first program outside a
school of public health accredited by the American Public Health
Association (Anonymous 2009). UT is very proud of this distinction and
plans continued expansion of its public health offerings with the
ultimate goal of establishing an accredited School of Public Health at the university.
In the Fall of 2007, a Center for Public Health (CPH) was established to identify and develop resources within the University of Tennessee to achieve this goal and to expand interdisciplinary research. In 2008, Dr. Paul Erwin, CPH director, developed a preliminary strategic plan for the development of a school of public health. The merger of the CPH with the MPH program on July 1, 2010 established the Department of Public Health (Ejike-King 2010). The work of developing into an school of public health continues with more detailed strategic planning, the addition of faculty, and resource and curricular developments that will lead to a top-notch school of public health that provides opportunities for students, faculty, the university, Knoxville and the state of Tennessee to address the health care needs of the populations in this and other states as well as internationally.
Anonymous (2009). Department of Public Health. MPH Memos. Knoxville. Fall 2009, Issue 3.
Ejike-King, L. (2010). Department of Public Health. MPH Memos. Knoxville. Spring 2010, Issue 1.
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HHS Plan Promises Action on Viral Hepatitis
Executive Director of Caring Ambassadors Program, Inc., Portland, Oregon Chair of the National Viral Hepatitis Roundtable
Chronic hepatitis B and C afflict nearly 6 million Americans, with African Americans, Asian Americans, and baby boomers disproportionately affected. Because our public health system is underfunded, our nation does a poor job of screening and early intervention. Most infected individuals only become aware of their condition after it has progressed to cirrhosis, liver failure or liver cancer.
Last year, two separate expert reports set forth specific recommendations for policymakers to address this crisis. After a decade of indifference, the federal government appears to be listening. In the coming months, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is expected to release an interagency "action plan." This national plan is urgently needed and will help our nation modernize hepatitis care for millions.
While we await the final action plan, we know that translating this plan into action will require a sustained effort from all stakeholders. Integrating hepatitis into the existing public health infrastructure is a critical goal. Doing so will require everyone to identify areas where they can integrate effective hepatitis care – prevention, screening, and early intervention –into their existing work.
APHA members are on the front lines daily, battling to improve our nation’s health and well-being. Your ongoing support and dedication will be vital to addressing this silent epidemic.
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Periodic Prompts in Health Promotion Interventions and the Cultural Significance of Monday: Two Systematic Reviews
Johns Hopkins Healthy Monday Project
Center for a Livable Future
Two Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future researchers conducted a pair of literature reviews to explore whether the unique associations with Monday would be useful for health communications experts as they design behavior change intervention campaigns. The first review focuses on periodic prompts and their effectiveness in health behavior interventions. The second paper explores the cultural significance of Monday and its potential use in health promotion programs.
The authors concluded that frequent periodic messages can be effective in changing a range of health behaviors, including diet and exercise. They also found that Monday, as a day of the week, holds significance within Western cultures and may serve as a valuable day to send periodic health messages. The authors concluded that Monday represents a common cultural experience with both positive and negative associations.
While many people refer to the "Monday blues," the authors identified a number of websites, blogs and books that seek to re-frame Monday as positive. A survey sponsored by the non-profit Monday Campaigns found that more than half of 1,500 adults over age 25 viewed Monday as a day to "get their act together" or as a day for a fresh start.
Health promotion interventions often lack a strategy for facilitating and measuring sustained behavior change. The authors suggest that future behavior change communication campaigns could improve understanding of the most effective ways to foster long-term behavior change by utilizing periodic prompts and evaluating when and how often they should be sent.
Read more at: http://www.jhsph.edu/clf/PDF_Files/healthymondayreport.pdf
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An Integrated Approach to Worksite Health Promotion and Protection
Pouran D. Faghri, MD, MS, FACSM
Professor, University of Connecticut
The purpose of occupational ergonomics is to address the fit between employees and their work environment by enhancing job performance through modifications in job design and work environment. Ergonomic interventions focus mostly on interventions that avoid work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as low back pain and tendonitis. On the other hand, in traditional health promotion programs the focus is more on individual change in health behaviors such as exercise, diet, tobacco smoking, and stress management and coping skills. These "lifestyle" risk factors are well-established contributors to chronic disease such as obesity, hypertension, CVD, diabetes, as well as musculoskeletal disorder risks.
An integrated approach to workplace health promotion and protection programs should include attention to the work environment, especially in light of recent findings that work organization influences "lifestyle" health behaviors. The Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW) is a cooperative, cross-disciplinary initiative developed in 2005 [U19 OH008857] by investigators from two major public universities in New England, the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Connecticut. In line with the NIOSH WorkLife Initiative mission, the goal of the Center is to evaluate multiple models for integrating worksite health promotion with occupational health and safety interventions, with a strong emphasis on worker involvement and on enhancing musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and mental health.
For more information about the center, please visit: http://www.uml.edu/centers/cph-new/ or http://www:http://oehc.uchc.edu/healthywork/index.asp.
Dr. Pouran Faghri is leading the health promotion methodology team for CPH-NEW. Drs. Punnett and Cherniack are CO-Directors of the Center.
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SOPHE/NACDD 2011 Joint Academy and Midyear Scientific Meeting
Save the date for the SOPHE/NACDD 2011 Joint Academy and Midyear Scientific Meeting, "A Tapestry for Change: Addressing Chronic Health Issues in a Dynamic World." It is set to take place May 1-4, 2011 in Albuquerque, N.M.
This conference will be unique in incorporating intensive skill-building courses/workshops into the program, complimented by 1.5 days of plenary and concurrent sessions. The rich colorful diversity of the southwest will provide an ideal backdrop to focus on disparities, especially those impacting immigrants and Latino and Native American populations.
Hotel room blocks will be available online until April 9, 2011.
See http://www.sophe.org/SOPHE_NACDD.cfm for more information
SOPHE's 21st Century Fund Student Scholarships
SOPHE 21st Century Fund Student Scholarship provides conference support to full-time undergraduate & graduate level students to attend the SOPHE Midyear Scientific Conference, Annual Meeting, or Annual Health Education Advocacy Summit. Application deadline for the 2011 Midyear Meeting is Feb. 26, 2011. The deadline for the 2011 Annual Meeting is Sept. 15, 2011 See SOPHE's Awards & Scholarship Page at http://sophe.org/Awards_scholarships.cfm for more information.
SOPHE/ATSDR Student Fellowship in Environmental Health Promotion Or Emergency Preparedness
Application Deadline: Feb. 25, 2011
SOPHE is accepting applications for one-year student fellowships in environmental health promotion and social justice or emergency preparedness. Funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, this fellowship is designed to recognize, assist and train students working on projects that address environmental health or emergency preparedness from the perspective of health education or the behavioral sciences. Recipients of the award will receive the following:
- $1,500 stipend to be distributed throughout the year;
- Fellowship certificate of completion;
- Free student membership in national SOPHE for one year;
- Complimentary registration at the 2011 SOPHE Annual Meeting and awards banquet, to be held in Washington, D.C., where they will have an opportunity to display and/or provide an oral presentation on the proposed project; and
- Recognition in SOPHE's website and newsletter.
See full details at http://sophe.org/Awards_scholarships.cfm
14th Annual Health Education Advocacy Summit
· A health professional interested in learning more about policy advocacy and systems change?
· A professor in search of innovative ideas for improving your curriculum in health education advocacy?
· A seasoned health advocate motivated to advance your advocacy skills to the next level?
An impassioned citizen or energized student who wants to advocate for school & community health education?
...Then the Health Education Advocacy Summit is the place for you!
Register for the 14th Annual Health Education Advocacy Summit, set to take place March 5-7, 2011 at the Washington Court Hotel in Washington, D.C.
For additional information, visit: www.healtheducationadvocate.org
New Online Video Spotlights Health Education Profession
SOPHE proudly releases a new video showcasing the various roles, work settings, specialized training, and valuable contributions of health education specialists to enhancing the quality of life for all. The 2.5-minute production, Health Education Specialists: Promoting a Healthy World, showcases this exciting occupation, which the U.S. Department of Labor predicts will grow by 18 percent, which is faster than the average for all occupations through 2018.
Chronic conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, consume more than 75 percent of the $2.2 trillion spent on health care in the United States each year. By focusing on prevention, health education and health promotion specialists reduce the costs -- both financial and human -- spent on medical treatment. An investment of as little as $10 per person on proven preventive interventions could save the country more than $16 billion in just five years.
"Health education specialists bring specialized knowledge and skills to the front line of prevention efforts," states Elaine Auld, MPH, CHES, chief executive officer of SOPHE. "This video is designed to help raise awareness of employers and the public about what health education specialists can do for them, as well as inspire young professionals to consider a health education career."
Included are photographs of various health education specialists in action - including images of individuals testifying on health policy legislation, working with diverse populations to improve their health, conducting assessments and training, and using new technology such as GPS to help plan and evaluate evidence-based programs. At the click of the mouse, viewers have the opportunity to see the dynamic field of health promotion through the lens of health education specialists working in schools, government agencies, community organizations, businesses, health care settings, and international arenas.
To view Health Education Specialists: Promoting a Healthy World, visit www.sophe.org/healthedspecialist.cfm which features additional resources on the health education profession. The video is also available on Youtube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErBECLCWNOk .
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