Maternal and Child Health
Section Newsletter
Fall 2011


Dear MCH Section Members,


The APHA Annual Meeting is in Washington, D.C., this year from Saturday, Oct. 29 to Wednesday, Nov. 2. I hope many of you will be joining us for a Halloween meeting in our Nation’s capital!


This Section newsletter includes highlights from the MCH Section Program and Business Meetings, and I want to speak about the exciting things we are planning for this year’s meeting.


First and foremost as always is the Martha May Eliot Award Luncheon and Forum. In 2011 we will be celebrating 90 years of the MCH Section in APHA – come join us to celebrate!!!  This event is Monday starting at 12:30 in the DC Convention Center.


·         Dr. Peter van Dyck who recently stepped down as Associate Administrator of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal and Child Health Bureau, is the winner of the 2011 Martha May Eliot Award, which honors exceptional achievements in the field of maternal and child health.  Van Dyck has a nearly 40-year history of active participation in the maternal and child health community, first in Utah as State Maternal and Child Health and CSHCN director and as a faculty member at the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Utah Medical Center.  

·         Lauren Ramos will receive the MCH Young Professional Award.  Ms. Ramos is the director of programs at the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs.  In this role Lauren is a member of the Senior Leadership Team and oversees all of AMCHP’s cooperative agreement and grant funded work, and most important Lauren is currently serving as MCH Section Secretary!

·         The March of Dimes American Indian/Alaska Native Women’s Committee, which is the Effective Practice Award winner, was formed in 2006 to address high rates of infant death and premature birth experienced by Native families.

·         Kay Johnson, who will receive the Outstanding Leadership and Advocacy Award, has been a leader in MCH for over 25 years. She has been active in Medicaid and health policy since 1984 and a consultant to more than 40 states. Her expertise encompasses a wide range of MCH issues, including: perinatal and preconception care; home visiting; early childhood; oral health; immunization; newborn screening; adolescent health; and services for children with special needs.


The Martha May Eliot Luncheon is the premiere MCH Section event at every APHA Annual Meeting.  In the past years this event has sold out in advance of the meeting, so please be sure to buy your ticket when you register for APHA.  If you have already registered and did not purchase your ticket, log back in to the registration site at  At the bottom of the page is a link for registration changes. Once you log back in, you can add tickets to your registration. You will have to give your credit card number again.

Following the Martha May Eliot Luncheon is the Martha May Eliot Forum – the topic this year is “Life Course Perspective: Moving from Theory to Practice” -- a timely and important topic in MCH.


In addition to the Martha May Eliot award, the MCH Section will also be co-sponsoring other award sessions, including:

·         the Agnes Higgins Award co-sponsored with the Food and Nutrition Section on Monday evening.

·         the Text4Baby State Award Reception on Tuesday evening.

·         the Greg Alexander Outstanding Student Paper Session on Monday morning.

·         the session to celebrate 10 years of service from the CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities on Tuesday evening.

·         the MCH Section itself will be recognized for our 90th Anniversary at the APHA Awards Reception also on Tuesday evening.


A hot topic in public health these days is health reform and advocacy, and I want to highlight two of the many sessions we are presenting:     

·         On Sunday morning we will sponsor the MCH Town Hall with a specific focus on Health Reform, entitled Maternal Child Health and the Affordable Care Act.

·         On Tuesday morning we will sponsor a session entitled “Policy and Advocacy in Maternal Child Health,” which will include training from APHA, AMCHP, ASTHO, and leading advocates in MCH on how to advocate on the Hill for MCH.  This session can be followed by visits to meet your representatives on Capitol Hill should you feel inspired!  For more information, please contact Ellen Schleicher Pliska at


In addition to the many excellent award and scientific sessions, we also have planned our MCH Section business meetings and social events:


Saturday 2:00–3:30 p.m.         MCH Section Business Meeting (130.0)

Saturday 7:00 p.m.                             MCH Dinner Mehak Restaurant 817 Seventh Street NW ($25 for buffet dinner, reservations needed)

Sunday 4:00–5:30 p.m.          MCH Section Membership

                                                             Meeting (224.0)       

Sunday 5:30–7:00 p.m.             MCH Section Networking and

                                                              Social Hour (239.0)


In addition to these meetings we will have our committee meetings.  As you can see most of these meetings occur on Saturday and Sunday – so book early and arrive by Saturday.

All events are open to all APHA members interested in Maternal and Child Health

Please join us!  I look forward to meeting all of you in Washington, D.C.!!!


Debra Jackson

Chair, MCH Section


Congratulations to our new members of the Section Council and the Governing Council:


Section Councilors

  • Mary Kate “Katie” Baker
  • Karen Peifer, PhD, MPH, RN

Governing Councilors

  • Jessie Richardson Hood, ScD, MPH
  • Jane Pearson, BSN, RN
  • Marjorie Sable, DrPH, MPH, MSW
  • Howard Spivak, MD


From Oct. 29 – Nov. 2, 2011, join us in Washington, D.C., for the APHA 139th Annual Meeting and Exposition. The MCH Section will have a strong presence at the meeting. View the sessions sponsored by our Section by visiting the interactive Online Program ( ). Search the program using keyword, author name, or date. Don’t forget to stop by our new Section and SPIG Pavilion (Booth 3073) in the Public Health Expo next to Everything APHA. For more information about the Annual Meeting, visit



Come and join us for dinner and networking on Saturday night at this year’s APHA Annual Meeting. This is always one of our highlight events as it is casual and relaxed and FUN!!


Date:            Saturday, Oct. 29, 2011

Time:            6:30 for 7:00 p.m. dinner

Restaurant:    Mehak (North Indian Cuisine)

817 Seventh Street NW (two blocks from the DC Convention Center)

Washington DC

(202) 408-9292

Cost:            $25 per person


Dinner includes an all-you-can-eat buffet with two chicken dishes, two or three vegetarian dishes, rice, choice of three appetizers, soft drinks included.  They can make it mild so that everyone can enjoy.


You must reserve your place in advance! - RSVP by Oct. 22 2011 to Debra Jackson at





Most sessions are being held in the Washington Convention Center (WCC).  All Business, Membership and Committee Meetings are open to all interested individuals.


SATURDAY, OCT. 29, 2011

2:00 p.m.–3:30 p.m.             MCH Section Business Meeting (130.0)                                                  WCC

7:00 p.m.–9:00 p.m.              MCH Section Dinner – Mehak Restaurant                                            

                                                817 Seventh Street NW
This Section social event is open to all MCH Section members and interested individuals. RSVP in advance.  Additional information will follow.


SUNDAY, OCT. 30, 2011

10:00  – 11:30 a.m.          MCH Town Hall Meeting:  Maternal Child Health and the Affordable Care Act (167.0)  WCC                                                             

2:00  – 3:00 p.m.              MCH Section Committee Meetings

4:00  – 5:30 p.m.           MCH Section Membership Meeting

                                                 (224.0) WCC                                  

5:30  – 7:00 p.m.              MCH Section Networking and Social

                                                 Hour (239.0) WCC


MONDAY, OCT. 31, 2011

10:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.      Greg Alexander Outstanding Student Paper Session: Maternal and Child Health Research and Implications (3153.0) WCC                                          

12:30 – 2:00 p.m.                Martha May Eliot Luncheon - Celebrating 90 Years of Maternal Child Health (3250.0)        WCC                                                                           

2:30 - 4:00 p.m.                   Martha May Eliot Forum: Life Course Perspective: Moving from Theory to Practice (3359.0)   WCC                                                            

4:30 – 6:00 p.m.                    Agnes Higgins Award Session &     Reception   


TUESDAY, NOV. 1, 2011


8:30 -10:00 a.m.   Policy and Advocacy in Maternal Child Health

                                   (4053.0) WCC

                                    This session can be followed by visits  to Capitol Hill.   

6:00 - 8:00 p.m.                 Celebrating 10 Years of Service: CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (326.1)  Renaissance                               

6:30 - 8:00 p.m.                 Text4Baby Reception to honor State Affiliate Award Winners--Renaissance           

7:00 - 9:00 p.m.                 APHA Awards Reception – MCH Section to receive recognition for our 90th Anniversary -- WCC   



All meetings are being held in the Washington Convention Center (WCC).   All Business, Membership and Committee Meetings are open to all interested individuals.


SATURDAY, OCT. 29, 2011

12:00 p.m.                               MCH Governing Councilors (119.0) WCC                                   

2:00 – 3:30 p.m.                  Maternal Child Health Section: Business Meeting (130.0) WCC        

4:00 p.m.                              MCH Journal Editorial Board (136.0) WCC                                

4:00 – 5:30 p.m.              MCH Student Fellows Orientation (137.0)          WCC                          


SUNDAY, OCT. 30, 2011:

8:00 – 9:30 a.m.                          ATMCH Student/Faculty Breakfast (148.0) WCC                    

10:00 – 11:30 a.m.          MCH Section Town Hall Meeting: Maternal Child Health
and the Affordable Care Act (167.0) WCC                                

10:30 a.m.                               ATMCH Business Meeting (172.0)            WCC               

2:00 – 3:00 p.m.              MCH Section Committee Meetings

·         Adolescent & Young Adult Health Committee (181.0) WCC        

·         MCH International Health Committee (182.0) WCC                      

·         Breastfeeding Policy and Action Committee (183.0) WCC

·         Improving Pregnancy Outcomes Committee (184.0) WCC

4:00 pm – 5:30 pm MCH Section Membership Meeting (224.0) WCC          

5:30 – 7:00 p.m.              MCH Section Networking and Social Hour (239.0) WCC         


6:30 – 7:30 p.m.                  Infant and Child Health Committee (291.0) WCC

Intersectional Meeting: Adolescent and Young Adult Health          (292.0) WCC

TUESDAY, NOV. 1, 2011

6:30 – 8:00 a.m.                 Innovations in Maternity Health Services Committee (307.0)                                                          WCC


It is now possible to donate directly to the MCH Section Enrichment fund by going to the donations page of the APHA website Every Member Campaign at:


Check the Section box and choose Maternal and Child Health from the drop-down menu. It is really easy, and you can make your donation by credit card.   


WHY DONATE – we use the MCH Enrichment Fund to support our student fellows, who are an important resource and the future of our Section – your donations help us to support students!! 


Please donate today!!  THANK YOU!


LI1006.0 Advancing Black Feminist Theory and Practice in Public Health


Saturday, Oct. 29, 2011: 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.


CE Hours: 6 contact hours


Statement of Purpose and Institute Overview: The purpose of this institute is to educate public health professionals on how to apply black feminist theory as a gender specific approach to enhance public health interventions for women and girls of color. Participants interested in critical public health perspectives, and who seek to learn more practical tools for addressing complex social and health threats in the lives of women and girls of color should attend this institute. This institute will be the first of its kind to educate public health professionals on how to integrate black feminist theoretical perspectives as a way to improve upon existing or develop new public health interventions for women and girls of color. Black feminism will be discussed in theory and practice as a gender specific approach to address gaps in serving women of color at greater risk for select social and health threats, including, but not limited to:   HIV/STDs, adolescent pregnancy, domestic violence, substance abuse, mental health disorders and homelessness. The core themes of black feminism that will be presented as effective in public health include: (1) self-definition and self-value; (2) race, class, and gender; (3) unique experiences; (4) controlling images; and (5) structure and agency. In addition, course participants will examine how black feminism is compatible with existing mainstream public health paradigms, including behavioral change theory, social psychological perspectives, constant comparative analysis methods, and the health belief model. As a way to demonstrate the effectiveness and relevance of black feminist theory in public health, the facilitator will provide case studies of two risk reduction programs funded by the Office on Women’s Health:


·         GEMS (Girls Empowered and Motivated to Succeed), an HIV prevention education program for adolescent girls of color.

·         RISE (Reaching and Intervening with Survivors Effectively), which used black feminist theory to develop an HIV prevention program for women experiencing domestic violence, substance abuse and homelessness.


The RISE and GEMS programs will be used to share best practices based on black feminist theory, including comprehensive curricula, facilitators’ guides, pre-and post-assessments, technical and operating manuals, process and outcome evaluations, and program capacity and infrastructure development guidance. In addition, this  institute will highlight how black feminism incorporates storytelling and the performing arts as authentic knowledge-generating strategies to assess and address social and health threats for women and girls of color.


Full course details and fee information available at


Visit for APHA Annual Meeting registration details.


Questions concerning this or other Learning Institutes being offered should be directed to Evangeline Savage at


APHA will host a one-day advocacy track of sessions during the 2011 Annual Meeting in D.C. on Monday, Oct. 31, 2011, and all APHA members are encouraged to attend to hone their public health advocacy skills. For more detailed information regarding the particular sessions, refer to the 2011 online program (  and enter the session number to see the list of planned speakers and topics to be covered. Attendees will be eligible for CE credit.  Sessions include the following:


·         “Nailing your policy: Creating APHA’s policy buddy system,” Session 3007.0, 8:30 a.m.-10 a.m.

·         “Media Advocacy: Breaking through the crowded news cycle,” Session 3119.0, 10:30 a.m.

·         “The Who, What, & How of Advocacy,” Session 3216.0, 12:30-2 p.m.

·         “Mobilizing a public health campaign,” Session 3318.0, 2:30-4 p.m.

·         “The Role of Social Media in Public Health,” Session 3417.0, 4:30 p.m.


Forward the contact information for new companies or organizations that you would like to see included as exhibitors at the Annual Meeting to Priya Bose, Meetings and Exhibits Coordinator, at  Anyone submitting a qualified lead for potential new exhibitors will be entered into a drawing for a free full registration. Get to know our exhibitors before the meeting on our Virtual Expo ( )!


Employers, this is your opportunity to meet thousands of public health professionals and qualified candidates for hire. Job seekers, here is your chance to market your resume, meet recruiters, and sign up for a professional career coaching session, either an individual or group session.  Advance your public health career and find new prospects with APHA’s Public Health Career Mart. Find out more at


Text4baby, the country's first free health education program to use text messages, recently kicked-off a State Enrollment Contest, a competition to see which three states can enroll the most users in the service by the end of October 2011. The winners of the contest will be announced at the APHA Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C., in November.


The prize for each of the winning states will be a sponsored luncheon/press event in their given state for their text4baby partners. As a result of the State Enrollment Contest, text4baby partners are forming statewide coalitions to facilitate communication and collaboration around text4baby promotional efforts. To help increase the capacity of text4baby partners to reach pregnant women and new moms, we invite APHA Affiliates to connect with the state text4baby coalitions and work with them to elevate the program among communities in the United States. If you are interested in connecting with a state text4baby coalition, please contact Pamela Rich at


The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has released the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample, or NIS, featuring 2009 data. The NIS is the largest all-payer inpatient care database in the United States.


The NIS is nationally representative of all short-term, non-federal hospitals in the United States. It is drawn from the HCUP State Inpatient Databases, which include more than 95 percent of all discharges in the United States. The NIS includes all patients from each sampled hospital, regardless of payer–including persons covered by Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance and the uninsured.


The NIS contains data from 44 states and can be weighted to produce nationwide estimates, allowing researchers and policy makers to use the NIS to identify, track, and analyze national trends in health care utilization, access, charges, quality and outcomes. The vast size of the NIS enables analyses of infrequent conditions, uncommon treatments and special patient populations. 


As part of the HCUP database family, the NIS is considered by health services researchers to be one of the most reliable and affordable databases for studying important health care topics.


The 2009 NIS can be purchased through the HCUP Central Distributor and data can be accessed via HCUPnet, a free online query system. Additional information about the NIS and other HCUP products is located on the HCUP-US website.


Approximately 94 percent of women hospitalized for pregnancy and delivery in the United States had some form of complication in 2008, according to a recent report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.  Conditions defined as complications included:


·         Premature labor

·         Urinary infection

·         Anemia

·         Diabetes

·         Vomiting

·         Bleeding

·         Laceration of the area between the vagina and anus during delivery

·         Abnormal fetal heart rate

·         Advanced maternal age (over 35 years)

·         Hypertension and eclampsia


 AHRQ also found that among these women:


·         Hospital stays for pregnancies with complications averaged 2.9 days, while the average hospital stay for an uncomplicated delivery was 1.9 days.


·         A hospital stay for a complicated pregnancy averaged $4,100, nearly 50 percent more costly than a delivery without any health issues ($2,600).


·         Pregnancy and delivery related complications accounted for $17.4 billion, or nearly 5 percent of total U.S. hospital costs.


These findings are based on data described in Complicating Conditions of Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2008.  The report uses data from the 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a database of hospital inpatient stays in short-term, non-federal hospitals. The data are drawn from hospitals that comprise 95 percent of all discharges in the United States and include patients, regardless of insurance type, as well as the uninsured.


According to a recent report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, more than 3 million Americans went to hospital emergency rooms seeking relief from headaches in 2008, and there were 81,000 hospitals stays for the condition. One-third of the emergency visits and two-thirds of the hospital stays were for migraines in particular.


 AHRQ also found that:


·         Women accounted for nearly three out of four emergency department visits and hospital admissions for headaches.  Migraines were about four times more common among women than men in both the emergency department and the hospital.


·         People from the lowest-income communities were 2.3 times more likely than those from the highest-income communities to go to the emergency room for headaches (1,300 versus 565 visits per 100,000 population, respectively).


·         Rural residents were 1.6 times more likely than their urban counterparts to make emergency department visits for headaches (1,425 versus 896 visits per 100,000 population).


·         People 18 to 44 years old were the most likely to make emergency department visits for headache (1,626 visits per 100,000 population). Those 18 and younger were the least likely (345 visits per 100,000 population).


These findings are based on data described in Headaches in US Hospitals and Emergency Departments, 2008. The report uses data from the 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample — databases of hospital inpatient stays and emergency departments visits in short-term, non-federal hospitals.


About 39,000 school-age children were treated for sports-related concussions at hospital emergency departments in 2008, according to a recent report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


Children ages 14 to 18 (high-school age) represented 58 percent of the emergency visits treated for a sports-related concussion.  About 17 percent were between the ages of 11 and 13 (middle-school age), 7 percent were 6 to 10 years old (elementary-school age), and 8 percent were 19 to 23 years old (college age). 


The federal agency also found that among patients treated for sports-related concussions in 2008:


·         About 12 percent experienced a moderate or prolonged loss of consciousness, while 21 percent had a brief loss of consciousness. More than half of all patients (52 percent) did not lose consciousness.


·         Males accounted for more than three-quarters of patients treated in the emergency department for sports-related concussions.


·         People treated for concussions typically also received care for other injuries, including pulled muscles, sprains and skull fractures.


·         The vast majority of patients (95 percent) did not have to be admitted into the hospital.


These findings are based on data described in Sports Related Concussions, 2008. The report uses data from the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, a database of hospital emergency department encounters occurring in short-term, non-federal hospitals.


Rural Americans were five times more likely than urban residents to be treated in emergency departments for eye injuries in 2008, according to a recent report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.  The federal agency found that rural Americans made 646 visits to hospital emergency departments per 100,000 population, compared to 120 visits per 100,000 population for those in urban areas.


For patients treated in the emergency department and released (approximately 97 percent of all eye injury encounters), AHRQ found that:


·         The three most common types of eye injuries were cornea scratches (50 percent), followed by cuts to the eyelid or around the eye (9 percent), and bruises around the eye (7 percent).


·         Of these injuries, 32 percent were caused by being hit in the eye by something or someone, falling down (9 percent), getting a caustic substance in the eye (4 percent), insect bites or other reasons (3 percent), or being in a motor vehicle accident (nearly 3 percent).


For the 3 percent of patients admitted to the hospital for eye injuries in 2008:


·         The most common types of injuries were wounds to the tear glands (17 percent), bruised eye sockets (15 percent), and bruised eyelids (11 percent).


·         Falls were the major cause of these injuries (36 percent), followed by motor vehicle accidents (19 percent), being hit by something or somebody (12 percent), other reasons including insect bites (3 percent), and getting burned by a caustic substance (1 percent).


 These findings are based on data described in Emergency Department Visits Related to Eye Injuries, 2008. The report uses data from the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, a database of hospital emergency department encounters occurring in short-term, non-federal hospitals.


In addition to attending town hall meetings this year, APHA would like for you to share a story about why public health funding is important in your community or state. Preferably, the funding would come from one of these three sources:


1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

2. Health Resources and Services Administration

3. Prevention and Public Health Fund


 Examples can provide:


·         An approximate estimate of the amount of the funding received

·          Location of the program (City, state)

·         A summary of the program/intervention (PH issue and intervention being used)

·         Any examples of positive outcomes to date


Make all submissions to For more information,  email us at


Thanks for taking action to protect public health!


APHA has recently released a list of 10 Public Health and Equity Principles for Transportation ( These policies recognize the various impacts that transportation policies can have on public health — they can lead to an increased risk of heart disease, asthma, obesity and mental health disorders — especially in vulnerable populations, including the elderly, the poor and individuals with disabilities. We believe that if transportation policies are reviewed and evaluated with these principles in mind, we will be better able to ensure that health and equity are well-represented. By holding transportation policies to a stated set of standards, we can encourage a transportation system that supports health, and direct funds to programs that improve health, equity and well-being. It is essential that other organizations — at the national, state, and local level — demonstrate their support for these principles by joining us as signatories. Please sign on to show your organization’s support for these essential principles.


If you need a fun event to jump-start interest in your We Can! programming, look no further. Let’s Move! and We Can! are supporting National Geographic Kids in its quest to break the Guinness world record for the most jumping jacks done in 24 hours. It will take more than 20,000 people to  break the record, but just think of the ENERGY that we will use if we can break it! The anticipated kickoff is tentatively planned for Tuesday, October 11, at 3 p.m.; however the date and time are subject to change, so keep checking as the event draws closer. We will try to keep you updated as well.


Any type of community organization can participate, as can individual families. You can read the rules for different-sized groups here:  This is a great opportunity to bring your community together, burn some energy, and help set a fun record in the process. We hope you jump on this great opportunity!


For more information, contact the NIH We Can! Team:

·         Melissa McGowan:

·         Melinda Kelley:


APHA is pleased to announce a new collaboration with Drexel University Online. Under this program, APHA members and their families are eligible for special tuition discounts of up to 25% when they enroll in any of Drexel’s online courses.  Drexel University Online offers a wide range of courses in a flexible online format, including CEPH-accredited programs in biostatistics and epidemiology.  Please see the APHA partnership page for more details ( ).  


Any agreement entered into between Drexel University Online and an APHA member, employee or family member is with Drexel University Online and not with APHA.  APHA does not endorse any products or services displayed or referred to in conjunction with this partnership, and is not responsible for the actual content of Drexel University Online programs.


The site is designed specifically for public health professionals, allowing easy search of vendors from a link on the APHA website’s home page,  Within the Public Health Buyer's Guide, public health professionals will be able to easily locate products and services unique to our industry without the clutter of general Internet search engine results.


These stories of special interest to MCH members were recently featured on


·         OB-GYN guidelines often based on opinion, weak data:  A new study from Columbia University published in the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology reported that, out of 717 practice recommendations by ACOG, only about 30 percent were based on randomized controlled trials. About 38 percent came from observational studies, of limited value, and 32 percent were solely based on expert opinion. An editorial in the same issue pointed out that ACOG guidelines compare favorably with those in other branches of medicine, and are based on extensive reviews of medical literature, excluding experts with financial conflicts of interest, and including all stakeholders, including physicians from other specialties and patients.


·         More kids showing up in ERs after taking parents’ meds: A study published in the Journal of Pediatrics shows that between 2001 and 2011, emergency room visits among children five years old or younger for unintentional exposure to medication increased 28 percent, and admissions increased by 36 percent. The number of children in this age group only increased by 8 percent during this period. The vast majority of the cases involved children finding and ingesting adult medication, not dosing errors, which were uncommon. Experts say storing medication in locked cabinets away from children would help decrease the problem, but changes in packaging would also help.


·         Breast-feeding makes new mothers mama bears: The September issue of Psychological Science included a new study finding that nursing mothers are about twice as defensive as bottle-feeding mothers or women without children when confronted with a threat. Study participants played a competitive computer game against a research assistant playing a rude and aggressive study participant, who always lost. Winners were allowed to blast their opponent with an annoying sound. Breast-feeding mothers blasted their opponents twice as long and loud as other women. The study suggests that lactation (not just motherhood) equips mothers to deal more calmly and effectively with potential threats.