Injury Control and Emergency Health Services
Section Newsletter
Winter 2009

Notes from the Chair

Greetings ICEHS members and friends,


Health disparities are prominent in many areas of public health including injury, violence, emergency health services and emergency preparedness. There is an upcoming opportunity to highlight efforts to reduce these disparities through National Public Health Week (NPHW), April 6-12. This year’s NPHW is geared to building the foundation for a healthy America. Georges Benjamin, the executive director of APHA, reports that “Our national is falling behind in many important measures of what it means to be healthy.” APHA developed a toolkit for use by members and partners in their outreach endeavors to remedy this. You can obtain a copy of this toolkit at:

We urge you to use the tool kit to call attention to injury and violence prevention issues in your communities and state during this week.


Watch for your upcoming February issue of The Nation’s Health --  the official newspaper of APHA. It contains the congressional voting records of your senators and representatives on health issues. APHA reports that the proportion of representatives voting in support of key public health issues improved over the previous year. In particular, issues included the federal budget resolution, Medicare improvement bill, children’s health insurance, Medicaid rules, tobacco regulation, mental health parity legislation and others. We thank the scores of ICEHS members who took the time to let their representatives know how important these issues were to the health of the American public. There are several key issues coming up in 2009 that will have a direct impact on injury and emergency health services so we invite ICEHS members to stay tuned and be prepared to urge their representatives to vote to “build a foundation for a healthy America.” If you are not receiving The Nation’s Health, log on to APHA to check your individual membership status to verify that it is up-to-date.


If you are interested in working on injury and violence policy and in reviewing existing policies for their continued applicability and compatibility with the latest scientific discoveries, please be in touch with Kathleen Carlson ( Kathleen is tracking and disseminating committee membership for all ICEHS committees. 


If you are planning to attend the Annual Meeting of the World Federation of Public Health Associations in Instanbul in April 2009, join ICEHS members for the last day of the conference for what is shaping up to be an exciting session on injury and violence. Drop me an e-mail at if you are planning on attending and would like to be invited to a mid-year ICEHS dinner.


We look forward to hearing from you.


Best wishes,


Joyce Pressley, PhD, MPH

Chair, ICEHS

Congrats 2008 ICEHS Awards Winners

The 2008 Injury Control and Emergency Health Services Section Awards Banquet was held in conjunction with the 136th APHA Annual Meeting. Approximately 100 Section members, family and colleagues convened to watch as awards were bestowed for Distinguished Career, International Distinguished Career, Excellence in Science and Public Service. Gathering for the event at the Bali Hai Restaurant on Tuesday, Oct. 28, Section members commuted mostly by chartered water taxis to the San Diego favorite where they celebrated the accomplishments of colleagues.


Barbara Barlow presented the long overdue Distinguished Career Award to Susan Baker for her long history of personal scientific contributions as well as the mentoring of students and young colleagues in the injury field. Jack McLean and his wife Jill traveled from Adelaide, Australia for Dr. Mclean to receive the ICEHS International Distinguished Career Award for his landmark work in motor vehicle safety. Larry Cohen did the honors of introducing Dr. Mclean and highlighting his accomplishments. The Excellence in Science Award was presented by former winner Ted Miller to Corrine Peek-Asa for her scientific contributions that have advanced the injury field. Lee Annest presented the Public Service Award to David Lawrence for his work on SafetyLit.


Joyce with John Lundell

APHA special service Section awards went to John Lundell for his exemplary service in Section communication. His monthly newsletter is a key publication for keeping members abreast of activities in the field as well as the section. Billie Weiss received special recognition for her outstanding service representing the Section on the Governing Council. Doug Wiebe received special recognition for his two-year contribution to scientific programming. Although he is leaving programming, he will remain in an advisory capacity to the incoming program chair. Nancy Nachreiner was recognized for her outstanding four-year service as membership chair or co-chair. Nancy was instrumental in reversing the trend of declining Section membership, regionalizing membership and also mentored a group of young Section members in membership. Although she is relinquishing the chair’s position, she will continue in an advisory capacity to the incoming chair that she recruited and mentored.  


Acceptance of award nominations for the 2009 Annual Meeting in Philadelphia is under way. Nominations should be submitted to Chair-elect Jennifer Taylor of Drexel University. See the related article in this newsletter.

ICEHS Student Paper Award Winners

Since 1992 the ICEHS Section has held a Student Paper Award completion to foster and reward quality research efforts among students involved in the field. The highly competitive process involves having an abstract accepted for oral or poster presentation and, subsequently, submitting a paper in a format prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. The contest is sponsored, in part, by: Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, Mass.

Co-Winners of the Best Paper Award for 2008 are:

Starr Kelly Sage, PhD, MPH; recent doctoral graduate of the University of Minnesota Occupational Injury Prevention Research Training Program and currently a Research Fellow at the University of Minnesota.

Title of Paper: School Resources, Resource Allocation, and Risk of Physical Assault Against Minnesota Educators


Thesis Advisor: Susan Goodwin Gerberich, PhD

Quintin Williams and Starr Kelly Sage


Quintin L. Williams, Jr, PhD; recent doctoral graduate of the University of Minnesota Occupational Injury Prevention Research Training Program and currently a Research Fellow at the University of Illinois – Chicago.

Title of Paper: Bystanding as a Risk Factor for Injury of Children on Midwestern Agricultural Operations


 Thesis Advisor: Bruce H. Alexander, PhD


NCIPC Award Winners

The second annual Injury Prevention and Control Health Impact Awards ceremony was held during the ICEHS dinner.  Dr. Grant Baldwin, director of the NCIPC Division of Unintentional Injury, presented the awards to the recipients. The CDC established these awards to:

    • recognize efforts in achieving greater health impact in the field of injury prevention;
    • promote best practices and success stories in the field of injury prevention and control; and
    • demonstrate CDC’s commitment to achieving health impact.

2008 award winners included the Partners for Passenger Safety Program (PCPS) within the Center for Injury Research and Prevention at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia for their work in preventing child injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes. The creation of the “gold standard” for data on child occupant protection research and surveillance within the PCPS program has led to it becoming the largest child-focused motor vehicle crash surveillance system in the world.

Safe Kids Georgia was recognized for their work in preventing unintentional injuries in children ages 0-14 within all areas of Georgia.  Currently serving 22 local coalitions, Safe Kids Georgia has lowered the unintentional injury death rate through community partnerships, advocacy, public awareness, training and education.

Dr. Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH, was recognized for his longstanding and exemplary leadership and contribution to the injury prevention community at Harborview Medical Center.  Dr. Rivara was instrumental in initiating and proving the hypothesis that bicycle helmet use decreased significant head injuries by 75 percent, and used this information to build a community-based program for the original bicycle helmet campaign that has served as a model for similar programs throughout the United States and the world.

Congratulations Billie Weiss

Congratulations Billie Weiss, 2008 California Peace Prize Honoree

We congratulate our friend, colleague and UNITY Co-Chair Billie Weiss on being honored with a 2008 California Peace Prize by The California Wellness Foundation. Billie was acknowledged for her pioneering public health research that helps community-based organizations become more effective in preventing violence. Each honoree receives a cash award of $25,000 as an acknowledgment of his/her commitment to prevent violence and promote peace in his/her community. You can see Billie in the brief video that was shown at the awards banquet and also read the Assessment of Youth Violence Prevention in U.S. Cities described in the video, that Billie conducted as part of our Unity initiative (Urban Networks to Increase Thriving Youth).

Call for 2009 ICEHS Awards Nominations

For many, working in the field of injury, violence, and emergency preparedness is a labor of love and commitment. Many significant accomplishments will go unrecognized or under recognized. Although the Section has an awards mechanism to recognize individuals and organizations who have contributed significantly to the field, few members take advantage of this opportunity to nominate their accomplished colleagues for these awards.


The ICEHS Awards Committee for 2009 is currently seeking nominations for 2009 award recipients through March 1, 2009. The procedures, nomination form, and past recipients are on the ICEHS Web site at You can review the content of the awards nomination form at the end of this newsletter.


The ICEHS Section has authorized the following awards for recognition of individuals’ outstanding contributions to injury control and emergency health services.  Although not all awards may be awarded each year, nominations are currently being sought for all of the following awards:


Distinguished Career:  To recognize an individual, near the end of his/her career, for outstanding dedication and leadership in injury control and emergency health services with contributions and achievements that have a significant and long-term impact on the field. Recipient does not have to be a Section member.

International Distinguished Career:  To recognize an individual, near the end of his/her career, for outstanding dedication and leadership in injury control and emergency health services internationally with contributions and achievements that have a significant and long-term impact on the field. Recipient does not have to be a Section member

Excellence in Science:  To recognize an individual, at mid-career, for outstanding dedication and leadership in the science of injury control and emergency health services with contributions and achievements that have a significant and long term impact on the field. Recipient must be a Section member.

Public Service:  To recognize outstanding dedication and leadership in injury practice and advocacy with contributions and achievements with a significant and long-term impact on the field of injury control and emergency health services. Recipient must be a Section member.


Nominations for the above awards should be made by e-mail, fax, or U.S. mail to: 


Jennifer A. Taylor, PhD, MPH

Department of Environmental & Occupational Health

Drexel University School of Public Health

1505 Race Street, MS 1034, Philadelphia, PA  19102

(215) 762-2590 

(215) 762-8846 fax

Doctoral Training Opportunities Available

Doctoral Training Opportunities with the Occupational Injury Prevention Research Training Program (OIPRTP)


Institute of Medicine publications have identified serious deficiencies in graduate preparation in injury prevention within Occupational Safety and Health education and training. Yet such preparation is considered essential in reducing the burden of occupational injury, which accounts for a major proportion of lost work days and overall costs to employers as well as significant consequences to the injured employees. Numbers of personnel trained to conduct research and serve as academic faculty in the occupational injury prevention area are totally inadequate to meet existing needs at the regional and national levels.


The Occupational Injury Prevention Research Training Program (OIPRTP) addresses these deficiencies and builds on extensive high quality training and research experiences dating back to 1980 that have achieved national and international recognition. This program incorporates advanced training through curriculum and trainee research opportunities that involve multidisciplinary collaborations with experts in occupational injury epidemiology, engineering and human factors/ergonomics, safety, medicine, and the social sciences including occupational psychology. Integration of public health/epidemiology and engineering approaches, in concert with educational and legislative approaches, enables students to interact with all of the disciplines, represented in public health and occupational health and safety, thereby, encouraging them to use resources beyond their own area of interest and to apply their knowledge across a broad range of situations. Graduates are prepared to assume academic and research positions in various institutions including academic institutions, corporate and industrial settings, health agencies, and health care facilities.


Traineeships (stipends and tuition) are available to eligible applicants.


For more comprehensive information, go to:




Susan Goodwin Gerberich, PhD

Mayo Professor and Director

Midwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety

Co-Director, OIPRTP

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health

University of Minnesota

Telephone:        (612) 625-5934

Telefax:            (612) 626-0650



Bruce H. Alexander, PhD

Associate Professor and Co-Director OIPRTP

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health

University of Minnesota

Telephone:        (612) 625-7934

Telefax:            (612) 626-0650


New Public Health and Social Justice Web Site

Dr. Martin Donohue recently developed a Web site covering public health and social justice, which can be found at or at .

According to Dr. Donohue, this website contains articles, slide shows, syllabi, links, and other documents relevant to topics in public health and social justice. References for most of the information contained in the slide shows can be found in the accompanying articles. Presentations will be updated a few times per year.

The site is aimed at students, educators and the general public. It grew out of Dr. Donohue's recognition that medical schools, and even schools of nursing and public health, tend to inadequately address the social, economic, environmental, human rights and cultural contributors to health and disease. Some of the content focuses on the medical humanities and the history of medicine, which are two of his long-standing passions of mine.

Feel free to use information from the articles and slide shows, indeed even the slides themselves, with appropriate citation. It is Dr. Donohue's hope that this information can be disseminated widely, influencing current and future generations of health professionals and others concerned about creating a more just and peaceful world.

He is hoping to add other syllabi and articles from the many talented individuals working in this area. Please e-mail him any articles and/or slide shows you would be willing to share, along with comments, corrections, and suggestions regarding the site content.

Dr. Donohue's goal is to create an online clearinghouse for information and curricular materials re public health and social justice, and eventually to develop an annual, week-long colloquium/training, run by experts in their fields, for health professionals, students, and others interested in becoming social justice advocates.

Dr. Donohue can be reached at with any questions or comments.

Information Sought

There is concern about the rapidly growing problem of fatal and non-fatal overdoses involving prescription opioid painkillers (such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, fentanyl, and methadone). Middle-aged (ages 35-54) men are at the highest risk. PIRE, working with the North Carolina Department of Public Health, is seeking effective, relevant public health education, social marketing, and other types of interventions that could reach our primary target group and help them recognize and avoid the risks of overdose from prescription opioid painkillers.

They are looking for:
Relevant national, state, or local campaigns targeting middle-aged (ages 35-54) men and also previous efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from pain pills (narcotic/opioid poisoning) among any population.

Please send your materials (focus group summaries, survey findings, scholarly articles, and/or published literature) to Monique Sheppard at These materials are being compiled by the NC DPH Poison Workgroup to achieve the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality from pain pills (narcotic/opioid poisoning), particularly among middle-aged men. For more information about the Poison Workgroup, please e-mail

Archivists Attic

Lessons for us from the Great Depression of the 1930s? 
Rational Documentation and Advocacy Practices: Human Relations Leadership for "Accident” Prevention.

(See also: ICEHS Newsletters Archivist’s Attic, Sept and Oct 2002; Feb 2006 and Dec 2007.)  


For us historians, one major fallacy is to reflect on the past by using current paradigms. With that caveat, here are some reflections and perhaps some echoes of the past on our present economic downturns.

The time period is the 1930s, the Great Depression, the small part of the corner of the world is our field’s harbingers - the ‘accident’ prevention school.  

The first offering is on home accidents.  The ICEHS Section appreciates the written permissions from the American Journal of Public Health to have ICEHS reprint the following excerpts from the AJPH archives of 1929-1938, so to fill in some gaps in my commentary.

1. To begin- is this really a false dichotomy on data collection separated from planning, developing organizing initiating injury prevention programs?

    “Science is built with facts, as a house is built with stones. But, a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones a house.”

Henri Poincare. La Science et l'hypothese Flammarion, Paris, (1902).
Introduction. In Mark Buchaanan. Nexus. Small Worlds and Groundbreaking Science of Networks.W W Norton &Company, NY, NY. 2002.11


2. There are only a few different letters between change and challenge. In economic downturn it’s a chance- (it was for me over many years in injury control)- for injury control to edit  those different  letters  into  written  programming programs  and  on manuscripts for our future  history. L.F. (The original source of “challenge and change“ was adapted from Leadership Course at NYS Dept of Health , circa 1990). Moreover, those different letters must be not just framing “Injury Control” but cost savings to society and taxpayers (see ICEHS Newsletter Dec 2007).

The Great Depression period, worldwide and in the USA from 1929 to circa 1939 – with bread lines, home tents camping  near the White House, 20 percent unemployment, one out of four banks failing – still   continued philosophical or  limited programmatic progress on injury prevention. In 1935, innovative national data collection started on the class of child and home injury.  Non fatal home accidents were first included in the Nation Health Survey by frequency of disability of one week or more by means and nature of the injury, age, sex, employment, extent of impairment, and persons disabled for the twelve months immediately preceding the day of interview. [i]. By 1936, about 36,500 Americans died in auto accidents and 36,000 in home accidents, a newly recognized growing threat to the public health. (A New York State study showed that by 1940- 1948,  home injury deaths in upstate New York had greatly accelerated those of motor vehicles.[ii]) In a plea for state cooperation to reduce motor vehicle related injury to occupants, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, sent in 1936 a letter to the Governor’s of the forty-eight states: his leadership leveraging - in the worse time of our nation’s history - for injury prevention during  the Great Depression  moved  states to  establish Governor’s Traffic Safety Committees  (and in the early 1940’s he spoke nationwide  about more lives being lost on the home front from’ accidents’ and the need for home safety groups to come together ),. [iii]  In 1937, leaders of the National Safety Council and the State and Provincial Health Authorities of North America conferred on:” What shall we do about accidents?”[iv] 

A follow-up thrust for later planning and development for injury prevention started at the October 23, 1936, Annual APHA Meetings, Vital Statistics Section, in New Orleans.  New York State Health Department Commissioner, Edward Godfey, subsequently APHA President, stated his thesis statement that health departments study of "accidents" required an epidemiological approach:

"few, if any health officers or health departments are displaying any interest in prevention of injury and death from accidents. They are content that statistics shall be tabulated and published, leaving prevention entirely to other agencies or the will of God... It is the field of home and public accidents however, that I believe the health department has the greatest responsibility and opportunity."[v]

Godfrey, while offering an agrarian thesis of a  rational documenting system for preventing accidental deaths (he offered evidence that injury death  were beginning to exceed deaths from the major communicable diseases , and  the 1938 APHA Resolutions cited  Congressional funding support for  accident prevention  [vi] [vii] ), would fail to neither develop a program plan nor organize a structure, nor suggest any evaluation approaches.  He, instead, proposed collecting of data and vague informational remedies of being safe and careful. He, like Shattuck in Boston or Chadwich in England on rational and on emotive public health leadership for changing poor housing conditions, was unable to directly leverage real change.

And Godfrey's pleas would be on deaf ears as A War had converged on other foci, not unlike today – for our country and the world. WWII end was the ‘mother of returning to prosperity’.

[1]Proceedings of the First Conference on Home Accident Prevention. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan School of Public Health, National Safety Council, USPHS, APHA Committee on Home Accident Prevention,1953.

[2] Brightman IJ, McCaffrey I, Cook LC. Morbidity statistics as a direction finder in home accident prevention. Am J Public Health.1952;24:841.

[3] Inside Cover:  Am J Prev  Med 2001;21.(thanks to Dave Sleet, CDC, for his research and that offering )

[4] Johnson W., King B., op cite. 7.

[5] Godfrey E. Role of health departments in the prevention of accidents. Am J Public Health. 1937;27:152 - 155. 

[6] Year Book . Amer J Public Health .1938;28:34-35. (see also Godfrey’s  advocacies on noise conditions and accidents and on  his presentations at national meetings, respectively , in: Amer J  Pub Health . Year Book Part III .28(2) ;160-161 ( Feb1938);  Year Book 1938-39.Part 1. 29 ( Feb 1939) ; and also 29 ( Aug  1939). ( For the last two citations , the  pages were not found but search phrases ‘Godfey and accidents’ found at  ,on 8/16/07)   

[7]  Editorial: The health officer and the accident problem. Am J Pub Health. Dec 1937;27:1290-1291.


There was  also Great Depression activity on motor vehicle, suicide, and homicide injury prevention:


-ACCIDENTS (From: AJPH 1929)


PREVENTIVE medicine has been concerned too exclusively with the prevention of disease, the great majority of its devotees still regarding that function as the chief, if not the only province of their profession. Some of the old dictionaries had in their definition of medicine "the remedying, as far as possible, the results of accident and violence." The speed of modern life has forced us to recognize the prevention of accidents as a part of our calling, though a casual survey of books on hygiene and preventive medicine indicates that only those interested in industrial hygiene have given the subject the attention which it deserves.

The 1928 report of the National Safety Council1 arrests one's attention. During 1927, more than 95,000 deaths occurred by accident. If the same rate of increase holds for 1928, approximately 100,000 lives will have been lost. While the year showed a low general death rate, no improvement for accidents is evident. From 1911 to 1928, there was a total decrease in the death rate from accidents of 7.2 per cent, all of which, however, occurred prior to 1921, since which year the death rate has steadily increased. The actual number of deaths per year has increased 20 per cent. The most striking item is that deaths from automobile accidents have increased 1050 per cent during the same period. (bold LF) It is leasing to note the great improvement in deaths from railway and street railway accidents-37 per cent in one case, and 44 per cent in the other. As might be expected, a large number of automobile accidents occur among children, most of them in the 5-9 year period. This rate is exceeded only in the longer 15-24 year period, by approximately 3 per cent. Defects in the vehicle, such as poor brakes, improper lighting, etc., played a comparatively small part in the total number of accidents, there being only 4,969 cases reported in approximately 200,000 vehicles. Intoxication and physical defects were reported in 3,163 cases, 90 per cent of these being the result of intoxication. As far as the responsibility of the driver of the cargoes, the greatest number of accidents occurred through violation of the rules of right of way. Excessive speed, driving on the wrong side of the road, failing to signal and cutting in, come next in order as given. As far as pedestrians injured are concerned, crossing at intersections without a signal was the chief cause of accidents, crossing between intersections coming next, and playing in the street third.

A more recent report from the City of New York,' while not so detailed in character, shows that highway accidents lead as the cause of violent deaths- 1,306 out of 5,902.


The figures taken from these two reports have been selected because, for the most part, they represent the more easily preventable causes of accidents. The railroads and street car lines have adopted very widely the " Safety First " slogan. It is recognized that the great increase in automobile traffic has had a marked influence in decreasing the number of passengers on railways and street cars, especially for the short hauls, but there is little doubt that care of equipment and instructions to operatives have also played a part. It seems time for those interested in hygiene and public health to take a more active part in the education of the public in the prevention of accidents, and for the influence of the vast body of health workers to be exercised, not only for the making of laws, but for the provision of officers to enforce such laws.



1. Public Safety Series, No. 17, 108 East Ohio 'Street, Chicago, Ill.

2. Weekly Bull., Dec. 1, 1928.

-AJPH 1932:


In 1932,the overall  accidental death rate was 70.5 the lowest in the history of the united states except for 1921-22 ( 68.4 and 67.6)..MV accidental deaths declined lowest in history by 13%..'

…the reason for decreased MV accidental deaths was due in part "to safer use of streets and highways" and the lower occupational accidental deaths, … higher unemployment". For MV data, state by state assessments are provided.

LF Note: The above sampled web archive (it also has tasteless racist comments on stats and causes of  homicides and suicides )  is from a AJPH  published column:

  Vital Statistics. Amer.  J.  Pub Health 23(6): 629. 1933 , courtesy to apha.icehs section for reproduction and use , and   also at


- AJPH 1933:


“In its campaign against the eye hazards of industry, the Society cooperates with state labor departments, industrial journals, insurance companies, trade associations, universities and vocational schools, safety engineers, and others professionally concerned with industrial accident and health problems.

During the past year the Society sought, particularly, to arouse the public against dangerous fireworks and toy firearms, which constitute serious hazards to children. A survey conducted by the Society revealed that many children lost their sight as the result of accidents while playing with such toys”.


- AJPH 1933:

“Attention should be called to the rate of fatal automobile accidents, 22.0, the lowest in 4 years, and that of other types of accidents, 47.0, which has never been lower. These figures reflect not only the effect of safety measures, but also of the decrease in the number of automobiles on the highways and machines in operation in factories.

Compared with 1931, cases of sickness from reportable diseases increased by 15,000. More cases of scarlet fever were reported than ever before, the total of 40,000 being greater by 50 per cent than the corresponding figure in 1931. Cases of measles increased by 6,000, whooping cough by 1,500. The number of reported cases of syphilis, almost 60,000, was by far the greatest on record, representing a rise of more than 100 per cent since 1925. Among the favorable events was the drop in cases of poliomyelitis, the total for the year, 333, being a gratifying contrast to the 6,000 or more cases registered during the epidemic of 1931. A new minimum point was reached by diphtheria, with 4,200 cases in the entire state as compared with 11,000 only 4 years ago.-NTew York State Weekly Health News, 10:25-26 (Feb. 13), 1933.”


- AJPH 1933:

“Safety First for Little Folks-By

Lillian M. Waldo. New York:

Scribner, 1933. 165 pp. Price, $64.

That safety education has definitely established its place in the elementary schools is proved by statistics which show a steady increase in fatalities for adults and for children of preschool age, and a marked decrease for children of school age. The story centers around a little girl who dreamed that she took a trip to Danger Land and who tells of her experiences with the crippled children she met there. The safety lessons drawn are correlated with civic instruction to show children what the community is doing for their welfare and how they can cooperate. The book contains a number of illustrations.

A very good book for children of the third, fourth, and fifth grades if studied under the supervision of an understanding teacher. Bess Exton


That Great Depression  ‘thunder of history’,  ( what we cannot change), we pray,  will never be repeated.  But in crisis and political changes , comes  new  opportunities for  the safety of consumers .   Our  history can also show how  our  leaders in earlier generations coped and moved our injury prevention systems forward.  (See , Members’ Only for my   major surveys  and overlays of modern  leadership models on our injury control history ) ; also check out some broader overlays on our field  : “ A Bookshelf of Change.  Essential works that altered America’s thinking “. ( WSJ.Nov 8-9. 2008, W8):; works  by  David Thoreau,  Harrriet Beecher Stowe,  Betty Friedan, Mark Twain, and Dr. Benjamin Spock.   


My opinions are mine alone.

L Fisher Copyrighted 2009

Les Fisher MPH

Safety/Leadership Consultant,(Archivist, American Public Health Association, Injury Control and Emergency Health Services Section - - See  my monthly newsletter  commentaries and monographs at members only, on the history of injury control leadership at ) 97 Union Ave, S.  Delmar, NY 12054 USA. 518-439-0326