Food and Nutrition
Message from the Chair
Welcome to a most exciting year! It is with great pleasure that I serve as your chair in the Food and Nutrition Section (FNS) this year. I would like to update you on FNS activities. First of all, I want to send out a big “thank you” for all of your hard working in making the Annual Meeting a success. Many thanks to all the presenters and most importantly to the Program Committee. I would also like to congratulate our Section award winners, Genevieve Dunton, Betsy Haughton, Alice Lichtenstein, Jennifer Monti, and Teresa Anchondo. Thank you to the Awards Committee for a job well done.
We are planning the sessions for the Annual Meeting to be held Oct. 29 – Nove. 2, 2011 in Washington, D.C. This year’s theme is Healthy Communities Promote Healthy Minds & Bodies. We are also planning some exciting sessions that can be presented in the Film and Technology Theatre. The Program Committee is working hard to bring some new and exciting sessions this year. We have also received interest in co-sponsoring sessions from the Physical Activity SPIG; the Mental Health, Epidemiology, and Environment Sections; and the Breastfeeding Forum. FNS always needs reviewers for abstracts submitted to the Section for presentation at the Annual Meeting, so please contact Program Chair Ann Middleton if you would like to serve as a reviewer.
We are continuing work with the Fundraising Committee, led by Alyssa Ghirardelli. We hope to continue to explore APHA donation policies and hopefully bring in some much needed funding to our Section. If you are a member and would like to donate, please go to APHA’s website and click “donate.”
Our Communications Committee, led by Patti Risica, is doing a great job managing various communication mechanisms including the website, eCommunities, and sending out blast e-mails. Along with the Membership Committee, led by WenYen Juan, they have just started using Yahoo Groups this year. This is a great tool that is being used by our Section to get more information out to our membership and house important documents. If you haven’t already signed up, go to www.yahoogroups.com and type in aphafns.
In addition to our monthly conference calls, we will have our mid-year meeting at APHA in Washington, D.C., on April 29. This meeting provides an opportunity to meet with APHA staff and discuss FNS activities. In the past our Section has written policy statements on important food and nutrition topics. Please consider writing a policy statement in your area of expertise if you think APHA is the appropriate organization to sponsor.
Sarah Forrestal and Rachel Fisher are this year’s FNS newsletter co-editors, along with several guest editors contributing to each edition. The team has some exciting topics planned for this upcoming year. With the assistance of Melinda Boyd and Katharine Ryan, this issue explores eating behaviors, contextual cues, and mindfulness in three articles. Future editions will feature nutrition and social media, school wellness, and the work environment, so stay tuned.
In closing, I would like you all to get involved in FNS; this is your Section! With more of us working, each one of us is working less!
Thank you all for your hard work and commitment in making our section great!
Deirdra Chester, FNS Chair
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In the Eye of the Beholder: Influence of Visual Cues on Children’s Portion Sizes
Large food portions are thought to contribute to childhood obesity by inflating consumption norms and stimulating intake. Visual cues, such as dishware size, are believed to contribute to these effects. Previous studies have shown that children eat less when they serve themselves, however little is known about the factors that shape the size of children's self-selected portions. Jennifer Fisher and her team at Temple University’s Center for Obesity Research and Education are investigating the effects of large dishes on children's self-served portions and intakes. Forty-two first-graders were observed at an urban private school that participated in the USDA National School Lunch Program. Using a within-subjects design, children served themselves lunch one day/week for eight weeks using either child- or adult-size dishware. At each “Special Lunch,” participants served themselves either a unit (e.g., chicken nuggets) or amorphous (e.g., pasta) entree as well as fruit and vegetable side dishes. As they passed through the line, children were told to“take as little or as much as you want, but you must take some of everything.” Chldren served themselves larger portions and subsequently ate more of all the foods offered (unit and amorphous entree, vegetable and fruit sides) when using adult-sized plates and bowls. On average children served themselves 23 percent more amorphous entree (77 kcal), 12 percent more unit entree (49 kcal), 12 percent more fruit (18 kcal), and 11 percent more vegetable (9 kcal). Children from food insecure households showed greater increases in the amount they served themselves when using adult-sized plates, although they did not necessarily eat more on those days. This research demonstrates the influence of contextual cues on children's regulation of self-served meal size. Consistent with studies of adults, these findings indicate that larger dishware sizes can stimulate the amount of food selected and consumed by young children. Educating parents and caregivers to use developmentally appropriate dishware sizes and to provide guidance to their children around self-serving may help promote healthy child portion sizes.
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Price and Label Changes and Purchasing Behavior in a Hospital Cafeteria
The adoption of healthy food policies and practices in health care settings has the potential to promote health and reduce obesity and chronic disease among consumers both within and outside the health care facility. There is growing evidence for how pricing strategies have led to increased healthy food purchases (1-3).
A recent literature review found higher price elasticities for foods purchased away from home, suggesting greater changes in purchasing behaviors as a result of price changes (4). In many cases food items that are unhealthy are cheaper than those with more nutritional value. However, the price of unhealthy food does not reflect the true cost of consumption (e.g., costs related to obesity and chronic conditions). As a result, it may be efficient to tax unhealthy food and subsidize healthy food purchasing to encourage consumption that may reduce obesity and improve health. Moreover, changes in institutions may have spillover effects that lead to changes in regional food systems and agricultural policy.
Our purpose was to investigate whether food selection behavior among hospital employees changes as a result of changes in 1) food prices and 2) labeling food at the point of purchase as organic, local, and/or healthy.
At St. Luke’s Hospital, a 267-bed regional trauma center located in Duluth, Minn., hospital employees make up approximately 80 percent of the cafeteria consumers and spend approximately $90,000/month in the hospital cafeteria. The study design consisted of six, three-week study periods:
- Price increase (20 percent tax) on a specific unhealthy, non-organic or non-local food
- Price decrease (20 percent subsidy) for a corresponding healthy, organic, or local food
- Simultaneous tax and subsidy
- Tax and subsity with labels, and
- Return to baseline
The labels included nutrition information, maps of where food was produced, organic/non-organic labels, and educational messages at the point of purchase
Aggregate sales data for each period was evaluated. To control for changes in daily sales the quantity of each item sold was measured as a percentage of total quantity of items sold in the cafeteria in each three-week period. A 20 percent price reduction of a local, healthy food item (bison burger) increased the percentage sold by 26 percent from the baseline period. A 20 percent increase in the price of a close substitute, though non-local and less healthy food (hamburger) along with the prior price reduction, resulted in a 74 percent increase in sales of the local, healthier bison burger. Adding labels and educational messages to these price changes resulted in a 160 percent increase in the local, healthier food item sold. The price and label elasticity was -7.97, suggesting that consumers were very responsive to price changes with labeling.
After the price manipulation for the purely organic item (a pre-packaged yogurt) (20 percent price drop for the organic brand, 20 percent price increase for non-organic brand), the quantity of the organic brand increased by 32 percent while the quantity of the non-organic item fell by 6 percent compared to baseline sales. When we added the organic label message along with the price changes, there was a 36 percent increase in the organic item sold and a 7 percent decrease in the non-organic item. This translates into a price and label elasticity for the organic item of -1.82, again suggesting that consumers were sensitive to the price and label changes.
Overall, there appears to be substantial price sensitivity for organic, local and healthier food items with stronger quantity changes when food labels and messages were added to the price manipulations. This suggests that food labeling at the point of purchase should be used along with taxes and subsidies on food items. The next step of this research is to analyze daily sales and food selection by individual employees (controlling for relevant covariates) to determine sensitivities to price and label interventions. The Healthy Food, Healthy Lives Institute at the University of Minnesota supported this research.
(1) Jeffery RW, French SA, Raether C, & Baxter JE (1994). An environmental intervention to increase fruit and salad purchases in a cafeteria. Preventive Medicine, 23, 788-792.
(2) French SA, et al. (1997). Pricing strategy to promote fruit and vegetable purchase in high school cafeterias. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97, 1008-1010.
(3) French SA, et al. (2001). Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: The CHIPS Study. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 112-117.
(4) Andreyeva T, Long MW, Brownell KD (2010). The impact of food prices on consumption: A systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 216-222.
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A Mindful Eating Program Can Be Successfully Delivered at the County Level
The partners in North Carolina’s Eat Smart Move More movement asked the question, “How can you reach the more than 2 million overweight and obese adults in the state with an effective and affordable weight management program?” More than 60 organizations collaborate to implement the state’s obesity plan, including ensuring equitable access for overweight and obese residents to prevention and treatment services to reduce health disparities. At the same time, Cooperative Extension agents, who had a 25 year history of providing weight management classes, were asking for updated tools. Health department health educators, too, often in collaboration with extension agents at the local level, were encouraged to include weight management efforts in their “plan of work.”The Eat Smart, Move More, Weigh Less (ESMMWL) weight-management curriculum was created by a team of interagency professionals with expertise in nutrition, physical activity, and behavior change. The program uses evidence-based weight control strategies and is enhanced with techniques on mindfulness. The program was piloted in 2008-2009 to determine reach, effectiveness and acceptability to instructors and consumers. The strategies incorporated included: eating fewer calories; including more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in meals; eating breakfast regularly; controlling/decreasing portion sizes; eating more meals at home; drinking fewer caloric beverages; keeping a food/physical activity record; increasing physical activity; and watching less television. Participants are asked to eat with awareness, be attentive to how they move, and to do things consciously rather than out of habit. Participants are asked to track their mindfulness, physical activity, weight, and the food and beverages consumed. The instructors, who have been trained in-person or through online modules and webinars, retain some flexibility as they implement the program in their local communities. A full description of the curriculum is available at the program website and in the Journal of Extension (1, 2). A report of the pilot is in press (3) and was presented at a conference in November 2010 (4). In the first 18 months of the program, 101 ESMMWL courses were delivered in 48 of 100 North Carolina counties (about half in worksites) by local educators with 1,162 participants (54 percent of those enrolled) completing the course. Most (92 percent) were female and white (75 percent), with a mean age of 52 years and an average starting BMI of 32.7. About 59 percent had struggled with their weight all their lives; 33 percent had never taken a class (especially African Americans). Most (83.4 percent) moved toward or attained their goal, with 86.8 percent losing weight -- on average 8.4 pounds. Most participants lost weight at a safe rate and reported changes in mindfulness and in eating and physical activity behaviors. Most experienced a change in eating confidence: 92 percent increased mindfulness of what and how much they ate; 81 percent ate smaller portions; 81 percent ate fewer calories; 73 percent ate 1.5 - 2 cups of fruit on most days; 72 percent ate less fast food; 72 percent ate 2 – 3 cups of vegetables on most days. Confidence in physical activity changed, with 70 percent being physically active for at least 30 minutes per day and 71 percent doing strength training. ESMMWL had a positive and significant short term impact without the use of a prescribed, calorie-controlled diet.ESMMWL groups usually met once weekly for a 45- to 60-minute educational/motivational program and personal goal assessment. There were 79 instructors in 48 of the 100 counties delivering courses. Some included physical activity time. A program fee, ranging from $0-$50 and averaging $23 was charged. Each participant set a healthy weight goal of .5 - 2 pounds/week of weight loss or maintenance of current weight. Incentives such as receiving a portion of their registration fee back for successful completion, employer approved time off from work, water bottles, t-shirts, or other small giveaways were used in some programs to encourage weekly attendance and completion of the program and did positively impact weight loss results. The traditional weight management curriculum taught by many community health educators and extension agents have focused on caloric restriction. This curriculum, designed to use the concept of mindfulness, helped participants achieve a safe weight loss without restrictive dieting. This work demonstrates that professionals from an existing infrastructure (public health and Cooperative Extension) can be recruited to incorporate weight management programming into their plan of work. The curriculum was revised based on the pilot and is currently being used across the state. (1) Dunn C, et al. (2010). Eat Smart, Move More, and Weigh Less: a weight management program for adults. Journal of Extension [On-line], 48(1) Article 1TOT1. (2) Dunn C, et al. (2011). Eat Smart, Move More, Weigh Less a Weight Management Program for Adults – Revision of Curriculum Based on First Year Pilot. Journal of Extension, in Press. (3) Whetstone LM, et al. Eat Smart Move More Weigh Less: Delivering an Affordable Weight Loss/Weight Maintenance Program at the Community Level. Preventing Chronic Disease, in press. (4) Kolasa KM, Vodicka S, Dunn C. Disengaging Auto Pilot: Empower Weight Management Clients with Mindfulness. Presented at Food and Nutrition Conference, November 9, 2010. Boston.
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F&N Announces Student Abstract Awardee
Teresa M. Anchondo, MPH, currently a student at University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), is the 2009-2010 recipient of the Student Abstract Award. This award recognizes the student whose submitted abstract received the highest overall score by reviewers. Her winning abstract is entitled, “Neighborhood deprivation, neighborhood acculturation, and the retail food environment in a U.S.-Mexico border urban area.” In addition to the award, Ms. Anchondo received a one-year paid APHA membership. She is currently pursuing a PhD in the Interdisciplinary Health Sciences program at UTEP.
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Call for Nominations for F&N 2011 Awards
The March of Dimes is also seeking nominations for the 2011 and 2012 Agnes Higgins Awards. Established in 1980, the March of Dimes Agnes Higgins Award honors the late Agnes Higgins of the Montreal Diet Dispensary for her innovation and years of service to the cause of improved maternal nutrition. The award is co-sponsored by the Food and Nutrition and Maternal and Child Health sections. Nominations for both years must be postmarked by March 31 to be eligible. Winners receive a $3,000 honorarium and will be honored at a presentation and reception at the APHA Annual Meeting. Details on the awards can be found here. If you have questions, please contact Mary Lavan.
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Breakfast Cereal Manufacturers Promote Unhealthy Products to Children, Use Sophisticated Digital Marketing Techniques
Breakfast cereals are a ubiquitous part of American children’s diets. Ready-to-eat cereals are found in more than 90 percent of all U.S. households, and on average children and adolescents consume cereal 3.8 times/week (USDA). According to the Federal Trade Commission (2008), in 2006 breakfast cereal manufacturers spent $229 million targeting children aged 2-11, making them the largest packaged food marketer to children. To see how cereal marketers are using the latest digital media, we decided to analyze the content of child-targeted cereal websites. We found that cereal manufacturers maintain 17 child-targeted sites, totaling 452 pages. Sixty-four percent of the brands promoted products that failed the IOM’s 2007 standards for “competitive” foods sold in schools (foods sold outside of school meal programs). Sugary cereal websites targeting children are saturated in branding that is amplified by sophisticated digital marketing techniques. For instance, we found 165 games, 67 percent of which were advergames, meaning that the games wove messages about the branded product into the gaming experience (Figure 1). Two of the most popular sites constituted “virtual worlds,” immersing children in an elaborate experience for which they create a customized avatar (digital likeness) and then navigate a series of neighborhoods in a virtual city. Children are asked to register and divulge their personal information in order to fully participate in eight of the 17 sites, but only one required parental notification.These sites are of significant public health concern because they are engaging children for lengthy periods of time. Internet traffic data show that the most successful sites, Millsberry.com and Postopia.com, reached children 2-11 years old for 27 minutes, on average. It is settled science that children are vulnerable to advertising because they lack the cognitive capacity to differentiate persuasive intent. However, because this research is grounded in children’s passive reception of 30-second TV commercials, it is likely that the immersive, participatory digital environments offered by cereal brands are deeply affecting children’s awareness, preferences, and consumption of unhealthy foods. The Yale Rudd Center on Food Policy and Obesity and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supported this research.
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Call to Action: Value [the] Meal, Stop Fast Food Marketing to Kids
Children’s health is in decline. One in three American kids are now overweight or obese. Pediatric clinics increasingly witness suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and other diet-related conditions virtually unheard of in children just a generation ago. The fast food industry spends hundreds of millions of dollars relentlessly marketing unhealthy foods to kids. These savvy promotions work at cross-purposes to health educators who do not have the resources to compete with the ad budgets of transnational corporations. Recent reports by the Yale Rudd Center indicate that this predatory marketing leads to increased consumption of fast food among kids. Let’s end this practice and begin to reverse this deadly epidemic, making sure that healthy kids can become healthy adults. Corporate Accountability International (formerly INFACT) and its Value [the] Meal campaign are focused on stopping predatory marketing of McDonald’s-style fast food to kids. Corporate Accountability International has compelled change from global giants before, including the Nestlé Boycott on infant formula, Send Joe Camel Packing initiative and development of the Global Tobacco Treaty. This fall, Corporate Accountability International built grassroots support in San Francisco for a policy that limits toy giveaways in children’s meals that fail to meet basic nutritional standards. The campaign mobilized tens of thousands of health professionals, teachers and parents to get involved…and now it's your turn. Call for an end to the fast food industry’s predatory marketing today! As health professionals, your voice is critical. Please e-mail Juliana Shulman or call (617) 695-2525 by April 1 to participate.
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Maximizing Messages - Motivating Moms
The USDA Food and Nutrition Service in collaboration with stakeholders developed a set of 16 emotion-based nutrition messages and related content designed specifically for low-income mothers and children. The consumer tested messages and supporting content can facilitate development of new material and can enhance current theory-based interventions as well as education and counseling programs. These resources also include supporting content that provides motivational and easy-to-use tips for putting the messages into practice.
There are seven messages for mothers of preschool-age children and five for mothers of elementary school-age children. Messages for mothers address: maternal modeling of fruit and vegetable consumption; making fruits, vegetables and low-fat milk available and accessible in the home; cooking and eating together; introducing new foods; and letting children self-serve at meals. Five messages for 8- to 10-year-old children reinforce the messages for mothers and endeavor to influence food preferences, beliefs and asking behaviors of kids.
The implementation booklet provides guidance on how to use the messages in theory-based interventions, information on cultural relevance, selecting communication channels and applications for Federal nutrition assistance programs. The collaborative development process together with extensive consumers testing (in eight states) resulted in messages that are clear, realistic and compelling. Programs and groups working with low-income audiences will find these useful resources here.
USDA is currently expanding the messages and supporting content to include new messages addressing whole grain foods, fat free and 1% fat milk, and testing photos to support the messages. The new resources will be available later this year. For more information, contact Judy.Wilson@fns.usda.gov.
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Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 Helps Consumers Choose Wisely
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 were released Jan. 31 specifically focusing on two concepts (1). The first is maintaining calorie balance to help derail the obesity epidemic. The second, addressing the point that Americans are overfed yet undernourished, is to focus consumption on nutrient-rich foods and beverages which have high nutritional value for a modest amount of calories. Nutrient-rich foods include fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and plant-based proteins, and low-fat or nonfat dairy products. The selected messages for consumers (in italics) are practical and should help nudge consumers toward making wiser choices to help them achieve a healthy weight.
Avoid oversized portions. Restaurant portions come easily to mind, and by splitting an order with a friend or putting half in a to-go box, one will eat less. However, bringing home club-size packages of foods from the grocery store, eating food out of large packages, or using large dinner plates can also lead to overconsumption (2).
Enjoy your food, but eat less. One should both take pleasure in food and monitor how much one is eating. Turning off the television, eating at a designated place like the dinner table, and reducing other distractions helps people focus and enjoy their food. It also helps people pay close attention to what they are eating, helping them eat less (2).
Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables, especially non-starchy types, contain lots of nutrients and water, making them naturally low in calories. In addition, their fiber content helps add satiety to a meal, and eating a colorful variety of fresh, frozen, canned or dried varieties adds texture and visual appeal to any meal.
Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk. One glass of nonfat milk has fewer than 90 calories and provides plenty of calcium, protein, vitamins and minerals. Merely switching from 2% or whole milk to nonfat saves 30 to 60 calories per cup, and at less than $0.25/serving it is a cost-effective way to get important nutrients.
Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread and frozen meals-and choose foods with lower numbers. The average American gets more than twice the maximum recommended amount of 2,300 mg of sodium per day, mostly from processed and packaged foods. Encouraging people to cook more homemade meals will help them reduce sodium intake. Consider this: a cup of homemade chicken noodle soup contains about 25 mg versus a cup of the canned version at 927 mg.
Drink water instead of sugary drinks. Sugar-sweetened beverages don’t contribute to satiety, but add a considerable amount of empty calories to the diet. The average adult consumes more than 16 ounces each day; about 200 calories and 12.5 teaspoons of sugar with no nutritional value (3). Water is essential, has no calories, quenches thirst and may help reduce hunger and caloric intake (4).
(1) U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition. 2010. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
(2) Wansink B, VanIttersum K (2007). Portion Size Me: Downsizing Our Consumption Norms. Journal of the American Dietetic Association ; 107:1103-1106.
(3) New York State healthy Eating and Physical Activity Alliance: Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Fact Sheet.(http://www.nyshepa.org/documents/NYSHEPA%20SSB%20Fact%20SheetFinal2%205%2010%20doc.pdf)
(4) Dennis EA, Flack KD, Davy BM (2009). Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review. Eating Behaviors; 10(4):237–246.
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The APHA Food and Environment Working Group Wants YOU!
The APHA Food and Environment Working Group is gearing up for an exciting year of events, Annual Meeting session planning, and advocacy. The Working Group is a multi-disciplinary collaboration across several APHA sections. Colleagues work together to protect public health by promoting and cultivating a safe, healthy, just and sustainable food system.Are you looking for leadership experience? Several of our sub-committees still need leaders. It’s a great opportunity to network with colleagues and develop your leadership skills! Contact Rebecca Klein about leadership opportunities, join a committee, or learn more.
- Long-term planning: Serves as an advisory committee for the Working Group, guides the group's vision. Facilitates fundraising and outreach efforts for the group.
- Policy: Works on food and farm policy issues, helping to educate the public health community about the connections between agriculture/food policy and health.
- Sustainable water/food use: Works to "green" food and water served at APHA events; provides information to members about the importance of sustainable food and water.
- D.C.-Area food system tour: Each year the Saturday before the Annual Meeting, we host a tour of innovative food system projects. This is a well-attended and popular event.
- Networking: Plans our Working Group's main event at the APHA Annual Meeting. It is lots of fun and the primary opportunity for meeting attendees interested in food systems to network with each other and for our group to build its membership and share our accomplishments.
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Twenty-First Annual APHA Public Health Materials Contest
The APHA Public Health Education and Health Promotion Section is soliciting your best health education, promotion, and communication materials for the 21st annual competition. The contest provides a forum to showcase public health materials during the APHA Annual Meeting and recognizes professionals for their hard work.All winners will be selected by panels of expert judges prior to the 139th annual meeting in Washington, D.C. A session will be held at the meeting to recognize winners, during which one representative from the top materials selected in each category will give a presentation about the winning material.Entries will be accepted in three categories: printed materials, electronic materials, and other materials. Entries for the contest are due by March 25, 2011. Please contact Stephanie Parsons for additional contest entry information.
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Public health and Social Justice Resources
The Public Health and Social Justice website, at http://www.publichealtsocialjustice.org or http://www.phsj.org, contains three pages that may interest F&N Section members. The site contains open-access slide shows, articles, and links. Slide shows were recently updated, and can be used, in whole or in part, and with appropriate citation, by anyone who may want to give a lecture, be it to college students, the Rotary Club, or any other audience. The pages of interest are Food Safety Issues (GMOs, hormones in the food supply, agricultural antibiotics, food irradiation, bottled water, etc.), Obesity, and Environmental Health. Submissions of slide shows, syllabi, or other materials are always welcome; contact Martin Donohoe.
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Registration Now Open for APHA Midyear Meeting — "Implementing Health Reform: A Public Health Approach"
Registration is open for APHA’s Midyear Meeting: Implementing Health Reform — A Public Health Approach. Join public health colleagues and partners in Chicago, June 23-25, to better understand the health reform law and its implications from a public health perspective. Gain the tools needed for implementing the provisions of the Affordable Care Act and for improving health outcomes in communities across the country. The early-bird registration deadline is April 15. To register or for more information, visit http://www.apha.org/midyear.
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Are you teaching an innovative public health nutrition course? Working on an exciting project? Do you have a job opening or a conference you’d like to promote? Food and Nutrition Section members are encouraged to submit content to the newsletter, which is published online three times annually. The remaining 2011 deadlines are June 10 and Sept. 16. E-mail news, research updates or announcements to the newsletter co-editors at FNSnewsletter@gmail.com.
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The URL for Heirloom Gardens given in the Fall 2010 newsletter was incorrect. To learn more about this woman-owned CSA in Denver, visit http://www.eatwhereUlive.com.
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