Message from the Chair
Just about this time 80 years ago, in 1929, with the Governing Council’s approval, the Epidemiology Section was officially organized as a section within the APHA. Realizing the growing importance of epidemiology in their public health work, our Section founders had begun organizing a few sessions at earlier APHA annual meetings. They hoped to showcase and discuss the practice-based epidemiologic work of state and local health departments, few of which then had epidemiology staff. From these early gatherings and with APHA’s official sanction, our Section began as perhaps the first epidemiology society in the United States. Over the nearly 80 annual meetings, with thousands of presentations and hundreds of sessions addressing many public health issues, our Section has slowly grown to become one of the largest sections within APHA and the largest epidemiology society in North America, with some 3,000 members or more. While so much has changed since 1929, many public health and social issues have not: the need to understand and respond to pandemic influenza and disparities in health and access to health care, for example. Of course, new challenges abound and, with them, the need for newer tools and data to address them. This year, while we contemplate the work that calls us and those who will follow us to practice epidemiology, let us also celebrate the contributions of the Epidemiology Section and many of our members and colleagues to the achievements of the last 80 years.
This autumn also marks my transition from chair to immediate past chair. As one of my last official acts, I invite each of you to share your scientific findings and programmatic ideas with colleagues at APHA’s Annual Meeting in Philadelphia. Come get re-energized by meeting people who share your interests and passions! The Epidemiology Section has a terrific Annual Meeting program. Come celebrate our 80th Anniversary this year in Philly!
Thank you to all who submitted abstracts, organized sessions, and are presenting posters/talks and moderating sessions at our upcoming program. Many thanks also to the Section leaders and many others who have worked hard to make this program successful.
To plan your days there, please take a look at the wide-ranging topics of our Section’s Program Sessions, listed at the APHA conference Web site link for the most updated program information: http://apha.confex.com/apha/137am/webprogram/EPI.html. We are excited about the special invited sessions, including those that address this year’s meeting theme, Water and Public Health. Section late-breaker sessions will include updates on current topics such as the epidemiology of the novel influenza, H1N1. The APHA program will address current public health issues including U.S. health reform legislation. Special thanks again to Dr. Karyn Heavner, Dr. Aaron Mendelsohn, and the members of our Section program committee for their hard work!
In this newsletter issue, we Epidemiology Section leaders highlight some other Annual Meeting events we hope you and your colleagues will plan on attending while in Philadelphia. Here are five quick make-the-most-of-your-meeting tips:
· Tip #1: Get acquainted with what the Epidemiology Section and its leadership are up to, and think about getting involved. Come meet some of our continuing and new Section leaders and hear from candidates for APHA’s Executive Board and others (Saturday and Sunday nights only). Help us plan for next year (esp. on Tuesday morning). Please join us at our working Section business meetings (locations to be announced). While we expect these will be held at the Philadelphia Marriot, please check your APHA meeting program book for specific locations:
1) Business Meeting I, Session 125.0 on Saturday Nov. 7, 7-10 p.m., in a location to be announced.
2) Business Meeting II, Session 291.0 on Sunday Nov. 8, 6-10 p.m., in a location to be announced.
3) Business Meeting III, Session 401.0 on Tuesday Nov. 10, 7-8 a.m. in a location to be announced.
· Tip #2: Come celebrate with us as we honor and hear from some of epidemiology’s best, at our two Epidemiology Section awards sessions.
1. Awards Ceremony, Monday at 2:30 p.m., Session 3318.0, location to be announced. Come honor our many distinguished career award winners and hear an engaging Wade Hampton Frost Lecture by Dr. Eugene Gangarosa, professor emeritus at Emory University’s Center for Global Safe Water and former CDC senior medical epidemiologist). Dr. Gangarosa will discuss his remarkable career in public health and address past and current challenges with global waterborne illnesses. http://apha.confex.com/apha/137am/webprogram/Session27069.html
NOTE: this is earlier in the day than past years!
2. Student Awards and Careers Panel Session, Tuesday at 4:30 p.m., Session 4364.0, location to be announced. Come honor our Section Student Abstract and the College Board Young Epidemiology Scholarship (YES) Award winners and hear about and discuss careers in epidemiology with senior epidemiologists working in diverse public health settings. To students and others, make sure to also obtain your tickets for the Section social beforehand and, then, please plan on attending the social which follows afterwards at 6:30 p.m. (see below). http://apha.confex.com/apha/137am/webprogram/Session27124.html
NOTE: We encourage all students and professionals to attend BOTH sessions and then to continue talking at the social on Tuesday night! To read highlights and see photos of last year’s awards sessions and winners, please go to: http://www.apha.org/membergroups/newsletters/sectionnewsletters/epidem/winter09/
Special thanks to Drs. Claudia Kozinez, Christopher Fennie, Karyn Heavner, and the other members of the Awards Committees for selecting this year’s outstanding winners!
· Tip #3: This year we will continue our discussion with leaders in Epidemiology about where our field might be headed in the next 5-10 years. Top epidemiologists will address new findings about the impact of HIPAA privacy rules on public health research, new priorities for comparative effectiveness research, and a new national initiative for product safety monitoring. Please plan on attending our featured “Future of Epidemiology” Session, organized this second year by the Joint Policy Committee (JPC) of the Congress of Epidemiology Societies, Tuesday, Nov. 10, 2009 at 10:30 a.m. - 12 p.m., Session 4097.1, location to be announced. http://apha.confex.com/apha/137am/webprogram/Session28032.html
· Tip #4: Don’t miss your chance to meet new colleagues and mentors, to continue networking, and to celebrate our Section’s 80th Anniversary at THIS YEAR’s Annual Epidemiology Section Social just a few blocks from the Convention Center, from 6:30-8:30 p.m., Tuesday, Nov. 10. Please visit the Section booth to learn the exact location. We plan to host an epidemiology book raffle at the social as well. Space will be limited, and you must have tickets this year. Complimentary tickets will be available at the Section Booth in the Exhibit Hall for as long as they last. Several Section leaders will have a few tickets on them at the conference’s start, so you might try visiting one of the business meetings, especially Saturday or Sunday night, if you or your colleagues can’t make it to the booth. Tickets usually go fast, so make one of your first stops at our Section booth when the Exhibit Hall opens Sunday. This event will not posted on APHA’s Web site or highlighted in the APHA program book.
· Tip #5: Please visit the Epidemiology Section Booth! Come talk to Section leaders and find out more about the Section, get your Section badge labels and pins, pick up a listing of the Section Program for the conference, our new Section brochure, and of course, your ticket for the Social and a quick look at the books to be raffled. Come see the unveiling of our new Section banner, and, if you’re playing APHA’s scavenger hunt, find the answer to our Section’s question. (Check the Exhibit Hall directory for our Booth Number.)
And don’t forget about the coming call for abstracts for the 2010 meeting in Denver. Start looking for the call in January 2010 on the APHA Web site.
As I complete my term as Section Chair, I want to express my warmest thanks to all of our members for this extraordinary opportunity to lead our Section and for the incredible work and dedication of all of our Section leaders, including this year’s Section student leaders. It has been an honor and a pleasure to serve with you all. Let me also welcome Dr. Claudia Kozinetz as she soon becomes our new Section chair.
Again, please come celebrate Epidemiology Section’s 80th Anniversary this year!
See you all in Philadelphia in November! Don’t forget to attend your local public health organization meetings as well!
Dr. Jim Gaudino
Chair, Epidemiology Section
Contact Information for several other Section leaders:
(Please check http://www.apha.org/membergroups/sections/aphasections/epidemiology/roster/ for a complete list of contacts for Section leaders):
Dr. Stanley H. Weiss
Immediate Past Chair, Epidemiology Section
email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Robin Taylor Wilson
Mr. Elquemedo Oscar Alleyne
Section Secretary and Newsletter Editor
Dr. Celeste Marie Torio
Incoming Section Secretary and Newsletter Editor
Dr. Cassandra Arroyo
Section Web Master,
Section Program Committee Co-Chairs:
Dr. Karyn K. Heavner
Section Program Chair and Chair, Student Awards Sub-Committee
Dr. Aaron Mendelsohn
Section Program Co-Chair and Co-Chair, Student Awards Sub-Committee
Dr. Kristopher P. Fennie
Chair, Public Health Practice Award Sub-Committee
Dr. Howell C. Sasser
Governing Counil Whip, Epidemiology Section
Section Policy Committee Co-Chairs:
Dr. Sonja S. Hutchins
Co-Chair, Section Policy Committee
Dr. Anbesaw W. Selassie
Co-Chair, Section Policy Committee
Section Membership and Communications Committee Chair and
Representative to the APHA Committee on Membership:
Dr. Marian R. Passannante, PhD
For more information about the Section, please visit the APHA Epidemiology Section Web pages at:
Section newsletters, from Fall 2003 on, are archived & accessible to members at:
Return to Top
2009 Epidemiology Section Awards Session
Major contributors to the field of epidemiology and public health will be honored at the Epidemiology Section’s Award Session on Monday, Nov. 9 at 2:30 p.m. The Session will include platitudes for our 40- & 50-year members, presentations to our Career and Public Health Practice awardees and the Wade Hampton Frost lecture.
Highlights of the Award Session
Abraham Lilienfeld Award – Bill Jenkins, PhD, MPH, will be presented with the Lilienfeld Award at the 2009 APHA Annual Meeting. The Lilienfeld Award recognizes excellence in the teaching of epidemiology during the course of a career. Dr. Jenkins used as a means of promoting the teaching of epidemiology the development of the first MPH program at Morehouse School of Medicine in 1992. He continues to teach medical, graduate and undergraduate students in epidemiology, biostatistics and public health.
John Snow Award – Richard Kaslow, MD, MPH, will be honored with the John Snow Award at the 2009 APHA Annual Meeting. Dr. Kaslow’s epidemiologic research focuses on the immunogenetic determinants in AIDS and other infectious and immune diseases. His early work demonstrated the strong influence of multiple combinations of polymorphic markers in the HLA region on the outcome of HIV-1 infection. He is now engaged in a detailed exploration of the respective roles of HLA genes for transporters, the chemokine receptors variants and other markers in Caucasians of European origin and black Africans in order to quantify their effects on the development of infection and immunodeficiency.
Wade Hampton Frost Lecture – Eugene Gangarosa, MD, will present the Frost lecture during the Awards Session. Promoting the meeting theme of, “Water and Public Health: the 21st Century Challenge”, Dr. Gangarosa, an expert in the field, will speak of his activities relating to infectious waterborne diseases in the global arena, which included cholera, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, and a host of domestic pathogens. His contributions to the literature on these subjects influenced decisions that have had a profound impact on the lives of many people. Although officially retired in 2003, he continues to participate in teaching courses, mentoring students, and collaborating with CDC scientists in developing low-cost water purification technology for use throughout the world.
Public Health Practice Award for an Individual – Elise Riley, PhD, MPH, will be awarded the Public Health Practice Award at the 2009 APHA Annual Meeting. Dr. Riley uses epidemiologic principles in her practice of public health. She is committed to determining and ameliorating health risks that are specific to poor and marginally housed persons. The development and evaluation of a community syringe drop box program (Operation Drop Box) in Baltimore exemplifies her approach to public health practice. It was an inexpensive, simple yet elegant, intervention, acceptable to drug users, the community and police. It was effective in reducing risk of HIV infection through shared syringes.
Public Health Practice Award for an Organization – The Assessment, Policy Development and Evaluation unit of Public Health – Seattle & King county (PHSKC) will be awarded the Public Health Practice Award at the 2009 APHA Annual Meeting. Through the practice of community health assessments, PHSKC has been able to identify important health issues and effect a change through community involvement and appropriate interventions. A highlight of their work is the analysis and identification of trends in asthma hospitalization in King County. This led to the development of a community-based participatory research project aimed at reducing asthma health disparities. Dissemination of these studies led to the formation of an asthma coalition which has targeted low-income children, and has helped to develop housing-related interventions.
The Career Awards Committee did an outstanding job this year as the field of candidates was superb. Please thank them for their efforts: Toni Alterman, Jim Gaudino, Victor Ilegbodu, Carol Macera, John Neuberger, Stan Weiss and Michelle Williams.
The Public Health Practice Awards Committee also did an outstanding job this year in selecting winners from a pool of impressive candidates. Please thank them for their efforts: Oscar Alleyne, Kristopher Fennie, Jim Gaudino, Claudia Kozinetz, Perianne Lurie, Polly Marchbanks and Lauren Zapata.
Return to Top
Epi Student Corner
Hopefully, you have enjoyed the summer and had some time to relax before starting the new academic year.
We hope that you have started making plans to attend the upcoming APHA Annual Meeting in Philadelphia. We wanted to highlight a few activities at this year’s APHA Annual Meeting that may be of particular interest to students in the Epidemiology Section:
Epidemiology Section Student Awards and Career Session. This session will be a wonderful opportunity to recognize other students for their work and learn about career pathways from senior epidemiologists.
Epidemiology Section Social Event. The social event will be a great chance to meet and network with other epidemiologists in APHA in an informal setting. It also serves as a great networking opportunity with your mentor. Please inquire about tickets at the APHA Epidemiology Section booth.
Epidemiology Section Booth. Please drop by our Section booth to meet other members of the Section and to learn about other ongoing activities in the Section.
With the start of a new academic year and as we step down as your student representatives to the Epidemiology Section this year, we wanted give you brief summary of a few of our great experiences:
Abstract Committee. We learned about the peer-review process and were able to discuss epidemiology methods with senior epidemiologists.
Public Health Practice Award. We explored the various epidemiologic projects currently being conducted and gained a better understanding of how epidemiology is playing a part in public health practice.
Newsletter Student Corner. We were responsible for authoring a section of the Epi Newsletter entirely from a Student’s perspective.
We continue to encourage you to participate in APHA's Epidemiology Section. The Epidemiology Section has been a great opportunity for each of us to enhance our educational and professional experiences. If you are interested in learning more about serving as a student liaison for the Epidemiology Section, please contact Jim Gaudino or Claudia Kozinetz.
Submitted by Epidemiology Section Student Liaisons
Patricia Saul Hannah Yang
Return to Top
Become a Student Liaison
As you begin your career in epidemiology in these especially challenging times, possessing unique and varied experiences in public health can only be an asset. If you are transitioning from being a student status to seeking employment, it is wise to remain connected to the field in creative and unconventional ways. For these reasons I would encourage you to consider becoming a student liaison for the APHA Epidemiology Section
The primary role of an Epidemiology Section Student Liaison is that of an advocate for the development and promotion of student involvement, recognition and diverse opportunities within our section and all APHA sections. As Epidemiology student leaders for the 2008-2009 term, we were tasked with drafting the duties and responsibilities of student section liaisons, connecting state affiliates to the Epi section, representing the Section within the APHA Student Assembly and conducting abstract review for the APHA Annual Meeting.
Other activities included drafting Student Corner articles, providing feedback on e-Communities, and assisting at the Annual Meeting. Throughout the year, we lead or co-led key projects, gained team-building skills, worked independently, and developed friendships with colleagues. The level of access and input that we provided on trends, breaking issues, policy and decision making at the national level is certainly atypical for early career epidemiologists. I thoroughly enjoyed my experience as a student leader, and as a group we were made to feel that our contribution was truly valued by the Section. We hope that you will consider participating in 2009-2010. Please contact James Gaudino or Claudia Kozinetz to express your interest as a Student Liaison for the Epi Section.
Patricia Saul, MS, MPH
Return to Top
A Call To Action
Invitation to Contribute to our Newsletter
We continue to look for your ideas and contributions for our quarterly newsletter. If you have an important announcement or would like to briefly highlight some important epidemiologic findings, please contact Incoming Section Secretary and Newsletter Editor Dr. Celeste Marie Torio at email@example.com. Help us keep the newsletter relevant to you! The next deadline for newsletter items is mid-January 2010 for the Winter 2010 newsletter.
Invitation to Join our Section
Don’t forget, if you are not a member of the Section and wish to be, APHA now allows multiple section memberships. We welcome any colleagues from other sections to also join the Epidemiology Section! Your membership is just a couple of Web site “clicks” away.
It is not too early to consider nominating yourself or someone else to serve as a Section leader and run in next year’s Section leadership elections:
If you or your colleagues are interested in finding out about leadership opportunities within the Section, including student leadership opportunities, please come talk to any of our Section leaders at the Annual Meeting or contact any of us as listed above or on our Web site.
The call for nominations for Section Councilor or Section Governing Councilor positions begins very soon in January 2010. Dr. Jim Gaudino, in his new role as the immediate past chair, will be organizing our Section’s nomination process. Please talk with Jim at the Annual Meeting or contact him soon! (Check our Web site for descriptions of each of these positions.)
Return to Top
The Future of Epidemiology 2009 Session Sponsored by Joint Policy Committee of Epidemiologic Societies
The Epidemiology Section and the Joint Policy Committee of the Societies of Epidemiology will sponsor a special session (#4097.1) scheduled for Tuesday, Nov. 10 from 10:30 a.m.-12:00 p.m.
Session Moderator: Daniel Wartenberg, PhD
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, UMDNJ, Piscataway, N.J.
A few critics have proffered modest proposals to close epidemiology departments because epidemiology is no longer useful in the 21st century. They argue that we have found all that we can find using epidemiologic methods. Do you concur? This symposium examines the challenges and opportunities facing the field of epidemiology in the next 10 years. A panel representing federal, local and academic perspectives will highlight challenges and opportunities and propose strategies for the future. The symposium will invite audience participation.
Session Objectives: 1. Identify challenges and opportunities facing the field of epidemiology in the next 10 years 2. Discuss possible approaches to responding to the challenges facing epidemiology.
Speaker 1: Roberta Ness, MD, MPH
The University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston
The Impact of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Privacy Rule (HIPAA Privacy Rule) on health research in the United States.
Many scientists have raised concerns about the possible impact of HIPAA on the conduct of health research in the United States. To assess HIPAA’s impact, thirteen societies of epidemiology distributed a national Web-based survey. 1527 of eligible professionals anonymously answered questions. A total of 875 (67.8 percent) respondents reported that the HIPAA Privacy Rule has made research more difficult, many indicating that it added cost and time to study completion. A total of 684 (52.1 percent) respondents identified a “most affected” protocol. The respondents also indicated that the proportion of institutional review board applications in which the Privacy Rule had a negative influence on human subjects (participants) protection was significantly greater than the proportion in which it had a positive influence (P_.001).
In summary, this national survey of clinical scientists, only a quarter perceived that the rule has enhanced participants’ confidentiality and privacy, whereas the HIPAA Privacy Rule was perceived to have a substantial, negative influence on the conduct of human subjects health research, often adding uncertainty, cost, and delay. This presentation will discuss the results of the survey as well as the recent IOM committee's recommendations for HIPAA revisions.
Speaker 2: Kay Dickersin, PhD
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore
Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research
Clinical research provides health care providers with information on the natural history of disease, clinical presentations of disease, and diagnostic and treatment options. Consumers, patients, and caregivers also require this information to decide how to evaluate and treat their conditions. All too often, the information necessary to inform these medical decisions is incomplete or unavailable, resulting in more than half of the treatments delivered today without clear evidence of effectiveness. This uncertainty contributes to great variability in managing clinical problems, with costs and outcomes differing markedly across the country.
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a way to identify what works for which patients under what circumstances. Congress, in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, appropriated $1.1 billion to jump-start the nation’s efforts to accelerate CER. In ARRA, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) was asked to recommend national priorities for research questions to be addressed by CER and supported by ARRA funds. The IOM committee identified three report objectives: 1) establish a working definition of CER, 2) develop a priority list of research topics to be undertaken with ARRA funding using broad stakeholder input, and 3) identify the necessary requirements to support a robust and sustainable CER enterprise.
This presentation will summarize the IOM Report and discuss its implications.
Speaker 3: Judith Racoosin, MD, MPH
US Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Md.
The Sentinel Initiative: A National Electronic System for Monitoring Product Safety
In May 2008, the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the FDA Commissioner announced the Sentinel Initiative. The Sentinel Initiative is a long-term effort by the Food and Drug Administration to create a national electronic system for monitoring product safety. The Sentinel Initiative is intended to augment the Agency’s existing postmarket (primarily passive) safety surveillance systems and to actively gather information about the postmarket safety and performance of its regulated products. As currently envisioned, the Sentinel Initiative will enable the Agency to utilize multiple existing automated healthcare data sources (e.g. electronic health record systems, administrative claims databases, registries, or others) to evaluate safety issues occurring in marketed products. The data sources will continue to be managed by their owners, and only data from organizations who agree to participate in this system will be included. Questions would be sent to relevant participating data sources who would evaluate their data in accordance with existing privacy and security safeguards, and send summary results for Agency review. Two pilot programs will be getting underway in the near future, MiniSentinel I and MiniSentinel II, utilizing private data sources and federal data sources, respectively.
Return to Top
Say YES to the Future of Epidemiology
The future health of the American population depends, in large part, upon the knowledge and ability of our upcoming health leaders, practitioners and researchers. The Young Epidemiology Scholars (YES) Competition for original student research is designed to inspire talented students to investigate the many behavioral, biological, environmental, and social factors that affect health and, based upon this knowledge, to identify ways to improve the health of the public. The YES Competition awards up to 120 college scholarships each year to high school juniors and seniors who conduct outstanding research projects that apply epidemiological methods of analysis to a health-related issue.
The EPI Section continues to partner with the College Board in featuring and recognizing the YES winners at our APHA Annual Meetings. The next YES National Event will be held April 23-26, 2010 in Washington, D.C., and the deadline for submission of research reports is Feb. 1, 2010. High school juniors and seniors may apply and compete for scholarships of up to $50,000.
Read what former YES scholars are up to.
For more information, please contact Diane Tsukamaki, Director, National Recognition & Scholarship Programs (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Return to Top
Epi Research Highlights
Chronic Disease Epi
Drs. JoAnn E. Manson and Julie E. Buring, both professors in the Dept. of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and the Dept of Epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health, have received NIH funding to study vitamin D and the marine omega-3 fatty acids in the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The large-scale randomized trial is entitled the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) and will include 20,000 U.S. men and women above the ages of 60 and 65 years, respectively.
Dr. Xiaoxing He (assistant professor at Department of Health Sciences, Cleveland State University) and a team of collaborating assistant professors from Stony Brook University recently studied 6,799 U.S. adults who were enrolled in the Health and Retirement Study in 2006 to assess the mean differences between self-reported versus measured height and weight. They found that obesity prevalence rate was under-estimated by self-reported data among all racial and ethnic groups.
The findings indicate that concordance between self-reported versus measured height and weight should be taken into consideration when interpreting overweight or obesity status and related clinical outcomes. More studies are needed to identify the appropriate correction equation for obtaining optimal concordance or accurate estimates of overweight and obesity from self-reported data. This manuscript is currently under review at American Journal of Preventive Medicine, and Xiaoxing is the corresponding author.
Return to Top
Research Brief on Substance Abuse Research
The CLS is a longitudinal study of 1,253 college students at a large, public, mid-Atlantic university. This study is one of the first large-scale scientific investigations that aims to discover the impact of health-related behaviors during the college experience. Any first time, first-year student between 17 and 19 years old at the university in the fall of 2004 was eligible to participate in a screening survey. The researchers then selected students to participate in the longitudinal study, which consisted of two-hour personal interviews administered annually, beginning with their first year of college.
Please see the attached Research Brief
Return to Top
Research Brief on Tobacco Smoking Among Adolescents with Asthma
Tobacco smoking among asthmatic individuals has shown to influence the course and severity of the disease and its response to treatment. Children who smoke regularly are four times more likely to develop asthma within eight years than nonsmokers, suggesting a causal link between smoking and asthma.
The results of this brief suggest that a significant proportion of U.S. high-school adolescents with asthma are smoking and putting themselves (and others through second-hand smoke) at increased risk for deleterious health outcomes, and placing additional demands on the nation's health care system. More efforts on the part of health care providers, parents and the educational system are needed to modify the tobacco risk perceptions and diminish knowledge gaps among asthmatic youth, reduce their likelihood of initiating tobacco use and increase the quit rate among smokers.
Please see the attached Research Brief
Return to Top
New Reading - Eras In Epidemiology
In this book, Dr. Mervyn Susser and Dr. Zena Stein trace the evolution of epidemiological ideas from earliest times to the present. Beginning with the early concepts of magic and the humors of Hippocrates, it moves forward through the dawn of observational methods, the systematic counts of deaths initiated in 16th-century London by John Graunt and William Petty, the late 18th-century Enlightenment and the French Revolution, which established the philosophical argument for health as a human right, the national public health system begun in 19th-century Britain, up to the development of eco-epidemiology, which attempts to re-integrate the fragmented fields as they currently exist. By examining the evolution of epidemiology as it follows the evolution of human societies, this book provides insight into our shared intellectual history and shows a way forward for future study.
Eras In Epidemiology Flier
Return to Top
Epidemiology Newsletter Archives